The average mass of the human body has grown by 8% over 20 years - mainly due to the high caloric intake of the ration. This is evidenced by the results of a large-scale study published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization in July. Scientists report what measures need to be taken to stop the epidemic of obesity.
A group of scientists led by Stephanie Vandeevuire collected and analyzed data on caloric intake of the diet of 69 people in more than 30 years, as well as changes in the average body mass indexes in these countries.
It was noted that over the period from 1980 to 2010, the number of people with overweight in the world increased from 28.8% to 36.9% of men and from 29.8% to 38% of women.
At the same time, an increase in the energy value of food products consumed by the population of many countries was noted. In particular, both body weight and caloric intake increased over the period under study in 54 countries out of 69, representing 81% of all studied countries.
Data analysis allowed us to conclude that increasing caloric intake is the main cause of the global epidemic of obesity. Moreover, it is not only about rich developed countries. The study was attended by 24 countries with high, 27 with middle and 18 with low average income.
"We know that over the past decades other factors have emerged, such as the growth of urbanization, car dependence and sedentary work, which also contribute to the global epidemic of obesity," said Wendewayver. "However, our study shows that excessive calorie availability is faster than Everything is a decisive factor in the increased consumption of these calories and can easily explain the increase in weight observed in most countries."
Where do calories come from?
One burger and potatoes are already 1000 kcal, which consist mainly of harmful saturated and transgenic, cholesterol and "fast" carbohydrates. They give energy, but do not give the necessary nutrients. (For comparison: in a salad with a spoon of vegetable oil about 250 kcal, and they contain useful unsaturated fats, fiber, vitamins and trace elements necessary for the body.)
The reason for the intensive spread of obesity - sverhrobobatannye food products as the main source of calories. These are fast food, semi-finished products, cookies and chocolate bars, chips, buns. They are tasteful, affordable, inexpensive, widely advertised and have become the norm of consumption for many in the modern world.
This also applies to food in restaurants, according to a recent study by American scientists. Only the food cooked at home, can fully meet the needs of the body and do not overdo the number of calories.
The dilemma of food is that the daily diet should be stacked in 2000-2500 kcal, and if you eat a lot of "junk" food, then there is simply no place for useful food.
So, the most caloric ones and therefore the most popular for discussion are fats. 1 gram of fat gives 9 kcal.
According to WHO recommendations, about 30% of the daily ration should be fats, with clear recommendations for which: 10% for saturated fats (milk and dairy products, meat, poultry) and 20% for unsaturated (this is Vegetable oils, fish, nuts), which include such useful compounds as omega-3.
It is the unsaturated fats, which are mainly contained in vegetable oils, are useful for the body and serve to prevent many chronic diseases.
The super-processed foods often contain a lot of saturated fats and harmful cholesterol, as well as transieties - modified vegetable oils and so-called natural transieties, which are formed in milk and meat of animals. They are used for baking, sweets, roasting and deep frying. All this leads to a set of "empty" calories and obesity.
Scientists and doctors are talking about the emergence of a double hit of malnutrition. The family, which feeds "junk" food, often looks like: very fat parents and thin, underdeveloped children.
In adults superfluous, empty calories go straight to the waist and become the cause of chronic diseases, and in children they are hungry, but do not contribute to the healthy development of the body, since they do not contain anything nutritious.
And often it's not the fault of parents: for many families simple, natural products are hard to reach. They prefer to buy cheap semi-finished products, but there is not enough money for eggs, chicken, vegetables and fruits.
"Regularly binging fast food or" Snickers ", drinking eaten sweet with soda water, in one glass of which sugar is almost the same as the recommended daily norm, people exceed the amount of calories they spend and simultaneously lose the necessary nutrients necessary for the body: cellulose, unsaturated fatty acids Omega-3, vitamins and trace elements.According to WHO projections, the world expects an unprecedented increase in obesity statistics by 2030, when 73% of men and 63% of women in Europe will be obese. It is urgent to take measures and reduce consumption of the main culprits of obesity: Trans fats, saturated fats, excess sugar, "- commented Professor of Moscow State University, head of the National Research Center" Healthy Food "Oleg Medvedev.
WHO data in Ukraine shows that in Ukraine every fourth suffers from obesity. Forecast for the future is not optimistic and it is fully in the pan-European dynamics.
The value of nutrition research
The importance of the research should be perceived at the highest level, emphasize the scientists. Public bodies, whose tasks include the health care of the population, are obliged to pay attention to what citizens eat and, if possible, to influence the improvement of the diet, the decrease in it of products with high caloric content, but low content of really useful substances, consider Scientists
For Ukraine, this means not only the struggle with the fast food, but also the introduction of extended labeling of food, understandable for the population, as most people receive high calorie products, buying semi-finished products and products with a high degree of recycling in stores.
"The existing marking does not allow the population to make a choice, but simply to read it. The National Research Center" Healthy Nutrition "conducted a population survey that showed that the majority (two thirds of respondents) want to know what products are composed of, but half From them can not read written or understand what it means, "- added Oleg Medvedev.
An important step for consumers in Ukraine will be the introduction of visual markings, understandable at a glance. There are several approaches in the world.
One of them - the marking "traffic light", built on the clear principle of "red, yellow, green". The label indicates the composition of the nutritional value of the harmful and useful components specified in the color.
If saturated fats and transits are marked with green, then their levels are acceptable for consumption, if red, then a portion of this product will cost you dear centimeters and shortness of breath.
As the world experience shows, the introduction of mandatory, detailed and prominent labeling not only helps buyers, but also affects manufacturers, forcing them to re-formulate food products so that labeling does not glow with "red" levels on fats and sugars. This is an effective method of impacting the buyer on a manufacturer, which in Ukraine is not enough.
Scientists have identified the necessary measures to reduce obesity in the world: it is necessary to limit the advertising of unhealthy foods for children, to introduce additional labeling of food on the front of the package, to develop a pricing strategy and improve the nutritional quality of products in schools and other public sector enterprises, to adopt programs to make Healthy food is more accessible to all segments of the population.