Ebola virus today and tomorrow

Health And Medical Video: The Ebola Virus Explained — How Your Body Fights For Survival (November 2018).

Anonim

The terrible visitor from Africa today is horrifying to the whole world. Who and when he released the Ebola virus, whether he will become a new plague and if it is possible to find salvation from him - these questions are of concern to many.

The Ebola virus currently raging in West Africa has long since taken life in remote villages surrounded by tropical rainforests.

It belongs to the family of filo-viruses (Filoviridae), along with the Marburg virus, also causes a dangerous fever. The virus leads to a dangerous disease with a mortality of up to 90% and is very contagious.

From the history of the Ebola virus

The cause of a severe lethal illness, the Ebola hemorrhagic fever (GLE), or, as it's now called, the disease caused by the Ebola virus (BVBE), was first discovered in 1976.

At the same time, two outbreaks of the disease occurred in the city of Nzara (Sudan) and Yambuk (Zaire, now Democratic Republic of the Congo). The virus got its name from the river of the same name, next to which was the village where the disease first flared up.

In Yambuk, the first ill student was 44 years old. Initially, the symptoms of the disease were similar to malaria. Probably because of repeated use of injection needles the virus quickly spread.

In Nzara, the disease broke out among the workers at the factory. Despite the fact that animals and insects live there, the vector of the virus was not detected.

Types of the virus

There are five subtypes of the Ebola virus

  • Bundibugio (BDBV);
  • Zaire (EBOV);
  • Reston (RESTV);
  • Sudan (SUDV);
  • Tai Forest (TAFV).

The Zairian and Sudanese subtypes, as well as the Bundibugio (the first flash - at the end of 2007 in Uganda), are the cause of major outbreaks in Africa.

With regard to the Ebon Reston virus, which is open in the Philippines and in China, it is capable of infecting humans, but no cases of disease have yet been detected.

The Tai Forest or Cote d'Ivoire ebolavirus virus was first detected in Côte d'Ivoire in chimpanzees in 1994. He caused the infection of a woman-scientist, who managed to cure, in six weeks.

Shutterstock.com

Sources of infection

The natural host of the virus is the carnivorous bat (genera Hypsignathus monstrosus, Epomops franqueti and Myonycteris torquata). By the person the virus comes from infected animals (various types of monkeys, antelopes, bats, etc.) through direct contact and through the environment.

Infection occurs also from another patient: air-drip, contact, including through objects and environment. The Ebola virus persists for a long time, even after the patient's death.

Danger of Ebola virus

The virus causes a disease with severe course, pain, weakness, as well as hemorrhagic syndrome - internal and external bleeding, bloody vomiting, dehydration.

Incubation period - 2-21 days. Death usually occurs in the second week from bleeding and shock. Laboratory tests show a decrease in leukocytes and platelets, as well as an increase in the number of liver enzymes.


EPIDEMIYA 2014

Chronology of the fightInfografika


Survey of the population in infected areas found 7% of them antibodies to the virus, this may mean that some of the infection is easily and asymptomatic.

Except that Ebola fever is characterized by high mortality, it is also extremely contagious. It is precisely this that involves the strict observance of the measures of infectious safety - the use of personal protective equipment, safe injecting, and safe burial.

Dangerous contact with blood and other discharge of the patient, therefore doctors often work in suits of biological protection, patients are isolated, and premises are exposed to disinfection.

Those who came in contact with the infected person or with their proper subjects should also be under the supervision of doctors.

A major problem is the traditional funeral rites in Africa - it is difficult for people to explain why one can not kiss a deceased relative and touch him. Due to non-compliance with these measures, the virus spreads geometric progression.

Chronology of outbreaks of the Ebola virus

According to the World Health Organization:

year

Country

Subtype of the virus

Cases of the disease

Death cases

Mortality rate

2012

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Ebola Bundibugio

57

29

51%

2012

Uganda

Ebola Sudan

7

4

57%

2012

Uganda

Ebola Sudan

24

17

71%

2011

Uganda

Ebola Sudan

1

1

100%

2008

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Ebola Zaire

32

14

44%

2007

Uganda

Ebola Bundibugio

149

37

25%

2007

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Ebola Zaire

264

187

71%

2005

Congo

Ebola Zaire

12

10

83%

2004

Sudan

Ebola Sudan

17

7

41%

2003

Congo

Ebola Zaire

35

29

83%

(November December)

2003

Congo

Ebola Zaire

143

128

90%

(January-April)

2001-2002

Congo

Ebola Zaire

59

44

75%

2001-2002

Gabon

Ebola Zaire

65

53

82%

2000

Uganda

Ebola Sudan

425

224

53%

1996

South Africa

Ebola Zaire

1 *

1

100%

1996

Gabon

Ebola Zaire

60

45

75%

(July-December)

1996

Gabon

Ebola Zaire

31

21

68%

(January-April)

1995

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Ebola Zaire

315

254

81%

1994

Côte d'Ivoire

Ebola Côte d'Ivoire

1

0

0%

1994

Gabon

Ebola Zaire

52

31

60%

1979

Sudan

Ebola Sudan

34

22

65%

1 977

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Ebola Zaire

1

1

100%

1976

Sudan

Ebola Sudan

284

151

53%

1976

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Ebola Zaire

318

280

88%

Ebola today and tomorrow

The virus is becoming a global threat. To date, from the beginning of this year 1,350 people died and 2240 had become infected. This is the most massive outbreak in history (Zaire virus subtype, mortality 60-90%). The most affected countries are Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea and Nigeria.

The world understands that closing eyes on the Ebola virus is no longer possible. Work on a vaccine that has not existed before is underway. In Ukraine, it is being developed by the state scientific center "Vector", it undergoes preclinical tests, work is carried out as intensively as possible.

Given the scale of the threat, WHO has approved the use of an experimental ZMapp vaccine developed in the United States. Three health workers (Americans and Spaniards) who became infected in Liberia, felt better after it. One of them subsequently died (a resident of Spain).

According to the expert of the organization "Doctors Without Borders" Roses of the Cross, the danger of the epidemic of Ebola in countries with developed health care system is small. Measures on sanitary control at borders and treatment options will not give single cases of infection spread. First of all, assistance is needed in West Africa, where there are no such opportunities, and the disease is already out of control.

Ebola virus today and tomorrow
Category Of Medical Issues: Diseases