Dysplasia of the cervix is an atypical change occurring in the epithelium of the vagina. This disease is a precancerous process. In the early stages of its development, dysplasia is treated. For this reason, timely diagnosis and an effective course of treatment will eliminate the probability of developing oncological processes.
It should be noted that dysplasia of the cervix damages the cellular structure of tissues lining the vagina. Most often pathological processes develop at the age of 25-35 years. According to statistics, 3 women of 2,000 suffer from this gynecological disease.
Classifications of the cervical dysplasia
The uterus consists of the lower, narrow and cylindrical divisions, which are partially located in the abdominal cavity and in the vagina. They form a cervix.
The vaginal part of the cervix is examined using special mirrors during a gynecological examination. A cervix passes through a special canal, whose length is 1-2 centimeters. One end enters the vagina, and the other - into the uterine cavity. This channel is responsible for their connection.
The inner part of the primary canal is lined with epithelial cylindrical cells. It contains special glands that produce mucus. Due to the mucosal secretion of the microflora does not fall into the vagina in the uterus.
The external uterine epithelial cells of the cylindrical cells pass into a multi-layered flat epithelium structure that covers the vaginal walls. In this part there are no glands.
Dysplasia of the cervix is a violation of the structure of cells in the flat epithelium. The cells that have undergone changes are atypical and structured. They lose their shape, increase in size, have several nuclei in the structure. This gynecological disease affects the flat epithelium.
There are currently three stages of this pathology. It all depends on the degree of tissue damage and the stage of development of pathological processes. The higher the number of affected layers of the epithelium, the more acute stage is dysplasia of the cervix. There is an international classification of this disease:
- Light form - changes in the cells are weakly expressed. They affect only the lower third in multilayered flat epithelium;
- Moderate form - pathological changes affect the lower and middle thirds in the flat epithelium;
- Severe form of dysplasia of the cervix - pathological processes occur throughout the volume of epithelial cells, but they do not affect the blood vessels, muscle tissues and nerves, as is the case with invasive cervical cancer that affects these structures.
Causes of gynecological disease development
The most common cause of dysplasia of the cervix is the presence of an oncogenic type of human papillomavirus in the body. In 95 percent of cases, this is the main reason. Because of prolonged detection in the body of the papillomavirus infection, changes in the structure of cells may begin to develop, which will result in the appearance of dysplasia. It can also contribute to a number of background factors. The main ones include:
- Immunodeficiency - stress, illness, drug intake, malnutrition;
- Smoking is a fourfold increase in the likelihood of developing this gynecological disease;
- Prolonged chronic inflammation of the organs of the genitourinary system;
- A violation of the hormonal background caused by menopause, pregnancy, the use of hormonal drugs;
- Early childbirth;
- Illegible sexual relations;
- Injury to the cervix.
Symptomatic dysplasia of the cervix
Dysplasia of the cervix is almost not expressed. She does not have an independent clinical picture. Most often the disease proceeds hidden. Usually it is combined with a microbial infection that causes pathological symptoms:
- Itching and burning in the vagina;
- The allocation of unusual color, consistency and smell;
- Bloody selection.
Pain during the development of dysplasia of the cervix in most cases is absent. The disease can be prolonged, completely regressed after effective treatment of inflammatory processes. Most often the disease develops along with a variety of gynecological diseases.
Due to the absence of obvious clinical symptoms, this gynecological disease can be diagnosed only by instrumental, clinical and laboratory methods.
Methods of diagnosis
To diagnose this gynecological disease, it is necessary to use a certain scheme. It includes several constituent elements. Firstly, the woman is examined by a gynecologist using vaginal mirrors. This will reveal obvious manifestations of the development of dysplasia. They can be expressed in a change in the color of the mucous membrane, the presence of uncharacteristic stains and the growth of epithelial tissue.
Also, a colposcope is used for examination of the cervix. This is a special optical device that allows you to magnify the image in 10x size, perform diagnostic tests. For this cervix is treated with a special solution and acetic acid.
The cytological study of PAP-smear involves the study of scraping, which was obtained from different areas of the vagina, under a microscope. This will detect the presence of atypical cells. Due to the study of PAP-smear, marker cells can be detected, which indicate the development of pathological processes in the body.
The histological study of the biopsy examines the tissue fragment obtained from the biopsy. This is the most informative method for detecting dysplasia of the cervix.
Immunological PCR-methods can detect HPV-infections, detect strains of viruses. Detection of the presence or absence of oncogenic cells makes it possible to determine the most effective method and tactics of treatment of a patient who has been diagnosed as dysplasia of the cervix.
Treatment of dysplasia of the cervix
The choice of the method of treatment of this gynecological disease is determined by the level of its development, the age of the patient, the size of the lesion, the woman's desire to preserve the childbearing function. A key place in the treatment of dysplasia of the cervix is immune-stimulating therapy. Patients are prescribed immunomodulators and interferons. Such preparations are indicated in case of widespread lesion of the tissues of the vagina.
Quite often, when treating this gynecological disease, surgical methods are used. It is about destruction. This procedure involves the removal of areas with atypical tissue using cryotherapy. The affected area is affected by liquid nitrogen.
Electrocoagulation, radio wave therapy, argon or carbon dioxide can also be used. This allows you to quickly remove atypical cells. In more serious cases, surgical removal of the dysplasia zone of the cervix or amputation of the whole organ of the reproductive system is carried out.
If the dysplasia is in the first and second stages, the changed area is small in size, a young patient, then the doctors often choose the expected treatment tactics. This is due to the very high probability of self-extinguishing gynecological disease.
If you spend every 3-4 months cytological studies and get two positive results, this confirms the development of the atypical cells in the body in the vagina, indicating the treatment of the disease surgically. The third form of dysplasia of the cervix is performed by gynecologists-oncologists for the use of available surgical techniques, up to the amputation of the cervix.
With the use of any technique of surgical treatment, the patient is prescribed a course of anti-inflammatory drugs, whose actions are aimed at the rehabilitation of the hearth of infection. This can reduce the degree of development of dysplasia of the cervix or achieve a full recovery, which will not require the use of more cardiac treatment methods, serious surgical intervention.