A child's game with a neighbor's cat may end with an unpleasant disease, which is what is called - a cat's scratch disease.
Ill suffer from it both adults and children, but the last three times more often - just because they are more likely to play with cats.
Disease of cat scratches is a non-severe infectious disease, which in principle passes precisely, but in some cases can lead to defeat of internal organs and even encephalitis.
The cause of the disease
The pathogen of cat's scratch is Bartonell B. henselae, which is the representative of the normal microflora of the cavity of cats. In more than 90% of patients, the disease was preceded by a scratch, bite or close contact with the cats. Epidemiological studies show that in the blood of about 20% of cats owners and 3-4% of all people antibodies kB are detected. Henselae - maybe they quietly suffered from the disease of cat scratches, and it was asymptomatic in them.
Separate cases of the disease have been described after contact with dogs and even after the injection of fish bone. Most people suffer from August to January. This is due to the fact that the natural carriers of the infection are rodents and, possibly, birds that move closer to the house during the cold months. Cats, attacking them, become infected and become carriers themselves. In addition, at this time in cats there are kittens, which plays an important role in the spread of infection.
Clinical manifestations of the disease
Disease of cat scratches is manifested by general intoxication, lymphatic nodes and a pathological element on the skin at the site of bite or scratch.
Approximately 2-3 weeks after contact with the cats in place of scratches, a red spot appears, which turns into a blister, and then into a wound or covered with a crust. It looks like an insect bites and is not particularly worried.
The closest to scratching lymph nodes is increasing. On the arm is a lymphovenope in the axillary region, elbow flexion or neck, on the leg - inguinal or popliteal lymph nodes. It increases to 3-5 cm, it becomes mild, painful. Then it is slowly absorbed, but it can sometimes be squeezed. In this case, it must be disclosed.
All this is accompanied by a moderate overall intoxication, as bartonelles enter the bloodstream and spread throughout the body. The patient is concerned about headache, weakness, slight increase in body temperature.
In most cases, the forecast is favorable. As a rule, the disease ends with involuntary treatment within 1-2 months.
Treatment is only symptomatic: analgesics from headaches, warm acid drinking to relieve intoxication, feverish at high temperatures. From person to person, the disease is not transmitted, and after the illness develops a stable immunity, that is, it is impossible to re-fall ill. However, in people with severely impaired immunity (for example, with HIV), a potentially severe atypical course of the disease with the development of pneumonia, osteomyelitis, meningitis, encephalitis or endocarditis.
Prevention of cat's scratch disease
Despite the fact that special treatment does not require cat scratch disease, an enlarged lymph node achieves and causes certain troubles, especially when it comes out. Therefore, it is necessary to explain to children that it is impossible to communicate with other people's cats and the more need to try to avoid scratches. The places of scratches and bites of cats should be treated with 2% solution of hydrogen peroxide, and then iodine or alcohol.