Diffuse toxic goiter - an autoimmune disease, in which there is an increase in the secretion of thyroid hormones by the tissue of the thyroid gland. As a result, thyrotoxicosis occurs - roughly speaking, poisoning the body with these hormones.
As is clear from the name of the disease, one of the leading symptoms is an increase in the thyroid gland (goiter). Moreover, in contrast to the nodal goiter, in which iron also increases due to the growing focus (nodes) in one of the lobules, the glandular tissue with diffuse goiter remains homogeneous and increases uniformly.
If in a healthy state the thyroid gland is not visible, though it is located in front of the larynx, then at the scrotum it becomes visible on the eye. And in the cases of diffuse toxic goiter, large iron becomes an obstacle to breathing and swallowing. Of the extreme, the fourth degree, it is sometimes necessary to operate precisely because of such complications.
Diffuse toxic goiter: the essence of the disease
The increase in the thyroid gland is due to excessive stimulation of its function. And the function of this is the development of hormones. Hormones are denoted by the letters T3 and T4, and they affect the various organs and systems.
In the blood, the content of these hormones is constantly regulated and is in a delicate balance with other organs of the endocrine system. But with toxic goiter, the gland produces an excessive amount of them (hyperthyroidism), and the effect on the body becomes excessive. This condition was called thyrotoxicosis. In essence, the manifestations of thyrotoxicosis and helped to study all the "points of application" of these hormones.
Diffuse toxic goiter: symptoms
A known symptom of a diffuse toxic goiter is a fecundity, and scientifically - exophthalmos. It occurs due to tissue edema behind the eyeball, which displaces the eye from the orbit. Edema extends to the ages. The eyelids are sparkling (disclosed), which further enhances the effect of decay. The skin around the eyes may become dark. Swelling and pigmentation are observed even on the shins.
But in another, swelling does not appear. On the contrary, patients with thyrotoxicosis are prone to sweating and often complain of dry mouth.
Very pronounced reaction from the cardiovascular system. A persistent symptom of diffuse toxic goiter is an accelerated palpitation (tachycardia) with a possible increase in blood pressure. Continuous operation of the heart muscle in such an "emergency" mode very quickly depletes it, which often leads to serious complications in the elderly.
Patients with hyperthyroidism are very annoying, complain of insomnia, are steadily losing weight, despite a stable high appetite. Increased excitability of the nervous system is manifested in the propensity to diarrhea (diarrhea).
Persons suffering from toxic goiter can not remain in a calm state for a long time; they are mobile, although muscle strength is sharply reduced.
Problems of diagnosis of diffuse toxic goiter
Thyrotoxicosis may not be detected in a timely manner, because at first the symptoms are similar to some neuropsychic deviations. Indeed, with a non-enlargement of the thyroid gland, such changes in the human psyche are difficult to immediately associate with endocrine disorders.
There is a beautiful and perhaps humorous theory that the author of the novel "War and Peace" in the form of Natasha Rostova has prescribed a clinical picture of a lung hyperthyroidism: a rapid change in mood, mobility, a special shine of the enlarged eyes that attracted men… Of course, there are people of special Temperament, in which such features are manifested from childhood. But if such a painfully emotional behavior suddenly appears in a person, you can suspect a disease. And in the case of a middle-aged woman, it is imperative to conduct a simple ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland and transfer blood to T3 and T4.
With prolonged illness in patients, pigmentation and deformation of the nails, as well as multiple caries, are detected. Typically, after treatment, all these events are completely gone, but sometimes some changes, such as scabies (exophthalmos), may persist after recovery.