What methods are used to diagnose neurological diseases. Laboratory and instrumental diagnostic methods.
All methods of diagnostics in neurology can be divided into manual, instrumental and laboratory.
First, the doctor finds out all the details of the disease, the history of such cases in the family, as well as conducts a number of diagnostic procedures with a neurological hammer. In some cases, this may be enough to establish a diagnosis.
If the above diagnostic methods are not enough, they resort to instrumental and laboratory diagnostics.
Instrumental diagnostics includes electro-wave, beam and ultrasound techniques.
On electric phenomena based:
- The method of electroencephalography (the procedure is simple and painless, takes quite a bit of time, with the help of EEG it is possible to diagnose epilepsy, migraine, panic attacks, hysterical crises, concussion and other brain injuries);
- Electroneuromyography (allows you to record the electrical activity of the muscles, that is, the work of the peripheral nervous system, this diagnosis can help in the establishment of myotonia, muscular dystonia, sclerosis and similar diseases).
On the radial phenomena are based:
- X-ray and computed tomography (used to detect bulk processes in the brain and spinal cord - tumors, anomalies of development, cysts, etc., as well as craniocerebral traumas);
- Magnetic resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (the effect is based on the radiation of a person by radio waves in a magnetic field, resulting in a graphic representation of the investigated body);
- Functional methods of radio wave research, allowing to obtain a dynamic picture of the working body; The method is extremely informative for the detection of diseases of the vessels of the spinal cord and the brain, using these methods it is possible to diagnose multiple sclerosis, hernias of intervertebral discs, anomalies of development and many other diseases.
On ultrasonic methods are based:
- Ultrasound dopplerography of the vessels of the head (the method is based on the registration of blood flow velocity in blood vessels, the study allows to determine both acute circulation disruption and chronic, which can cause headaches and pain in other parts of the body);
- Echocardiography (an ultrasound examination of the heart used to diagnose heart disease - the state of valves, large vessels, etc., may be important both for the diagnosis of the basic diagnosis and for the cause of the violation of the nervous system).
Laboratory research methods
The main diagnostic laboratory research used in neurology is lumbar puncture. It allows you to determine the condition of the cerebrospinal fluid, which is important for infectious and inflammatory diseases of the nervous system.
In addition, the establishment of the correct diagnosis of clinical and biochemical blood tests, special immunological tests - practically the whole arsenal of modern laboratories.