The nervous system is one of the most advanced, complex and multifunctional systems of the human body. Not surprisingly, its breakdowns lead to serious consequences.
Nervous diseases cause serious failures in the work of the whole organism, and the main problem is that it is difficult to diagnose them - most often the symptoms look like a disease of another system or organ.
Causes of development of nerve diseases and their main features
The pathologies of the nervous system are very diverse, the manifestations of nerve diseases are highly variable. Diseases of the nervous system inevitably affect the work of other organs and systems of the body.
The main causes of the development of nerve diseases are as follows.
- Infectious Infectious agents cause inflammatory lesions of the nervous system, often very severe. Nervous diseases of infectious etiology can be conventionally divided into the following groups: bacterial (meningitis, neurotuberculosis, neurosyphilis, encephalitis), fungal (actinomycosis, blastomycosis, mucormycosis, etc.), viral (meningoencephalitis, glangiolitis, non-malignant encephalitis, acute anterior poliomyelitis), protozoa (Cerebral malaria, schistosomiasis).
- Traumatic Injuries can cause shock and shock of the brain and spinal cord, breakage or damage to the peripheral nerves, and so on.
- Vascular pathology, which leads to changes in the brain and spinal cord (blood clots, increased blood viscosity, arterial hypertension).
- Development of tumors that lead to a disruption of the brain and spinal cord.
- Violations of the normal diet and the lack of vitamins that lead to the development of diseases such as pelagra, polyneuropathy, etc.
- Hereditary factors. Affect the development of congenital and hereditary diseases.
- Degenerative changes in the nervous system. The consequence of such changes is Parkinson's disease (Parkinson's disease), Alzheimer's disease, Pica's disease.
- Intoxication with chemicals, including alcohol, narcotic substances, as well as some medications.
- Diseases of other systems and organs that lead to violations of the nervous system.
Modern diagnostics of nerve diseases often allows us to establish not only the disease itself, but also the causes of its occurrence, which makes it possible to identify the true cause of the disease.
Diagnosis of Nervous Diseases
For the diagnosis of nerve diseases, basically the same methods of research are used, as for the diagnosis of other types of diseases:
- Collection and analysis of anamnesis of a patient;
- Objective neurological examination and physical research methods;
- Computer tomography allows you to see microtraums, brain abscesses, areas of softening and hemorrhage;
- MRI is a more precise and less harmful to the patient than a computer tomography;
- Angiography of the vessels of the brain;
- Lumbar puncture for study of cerebrospinal fluid;
- X-ray contrast study of the spinal cord;
- Neuropsychological and genetic research.
For the diagnosis of nerve diseases, other special methods are used. In each case, the neurologist prescribes diagnostic procedures, based on the clinical picture of the disease and indications for research.