The cytological study studies the structure of cells to detect malignant, benign tumors and lesions of non-tumor nature.
The main purpose of the study is to confirm or refute the fact of the malignancy taken for cell analysis.
Methods of cytological research are based on the study of a cell structure of cells, a cell composition of liquids and tissues under a microscope.
Distinguish the following methods of cytological research:
- Light microscopy;
- Centrifugation method. It is used when it is necessary to separate membranes of cells from the general structure;
- Method of labeled atoms. Applied for studying biochemical processes in cells: for this purpose, they introduce a labeled radioactive isotope;
- Lifetime study. This research method allows you to study the dynamic processes that occur in the cell.
The conclusion of the cytological study is based on the peculiarities of changes in the cytoplasm, cell nucleus, nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, formation of complexes and cell structures.
Apply cytological analysis during prophylactic examination, to clarify the diagnosis, during surgery, for timely detection of relapses, control over the course of treatment.
Cytological study of smears
As materials for analysis use:
- Fluids: Urine; secret of the prostate gland; sputum; washings obtained by endoscopy of various organs; selection from the nipples; prints and scraps from ulcer and erosion surfaces; wounds and fistulas; fluid from the serous and articular cavities;
- Point out: Biological materials obtained with a diagnostic puncture carried out by a thin needle;
- Smears From the cavity and cervix.
Most of these cytological studies of stroke are performed, if necessary, for the diagnosis and clarification of the diagnosis. But the cytological examination of the smear from the cervix (Pap smear) is recommended to be performed: once a year - women after 19 years of age, leading sexual life; Twice a year - for women who take hormonal contraceptives, became ill with genital herpes; More than twice a year - women with infertility, uterine bleeding, obesity, which often change their sexual partners, take estrogens, which have warts on the genitals, genital herpes have been detected.
Cytological examination of the cervix
For a cytological examination of the cervix, the smear is taken from the outer and inner parts of the cervix and from the vaults of the vagina using a special wooden spatula. Then it is transferred to the glass and fixed. The cytological examination of the cervix is carried out to detect cancer cell changes, and in conclusion, the doctor points out one of the five stages of the cell's state:
Stage 1. Cells with deviations not found;
Stage 2. There are minor changes in the structure of cells caused by inflammation of the internal genital organs. Fears do not cause this condition of the cells, but women are advised to undergo additional examination and treatment;
Stage 3. A small number of cells with deviations in the structure were found. In this case, it is recommended to take a swab repeatedly or to conduct a histological examination of the altered tissue;
Stage 4. Selected cells with malignant changes were found. The final diagnosis is not put, appoint an additional examination;
Stage 5. A lot of cancer cells were found in the smear. The reliability of such a cytological study is high, but the information it can give only about the area from which the cells were taken for analysis. In order to assess the condition of the fallopian tubes, ovaries, the uterus should undergo a comprehensive examination.