There are several methods of intestinal studies today, but colonoscopy is the most reliable method for detecting colon cancer.
Palpation of the abdomen, laboratory tests, radiation diagnostic methods (X-ray, ultrasound, tomography) also help the doctor in diagnosis.
However, only the colonoscopy of the intestine allows for a surgical intervention to look inside and directly examine the state of the intestinal wall.
Indications for colonoscopy of the intestine
To do a colonoscopy to clarify the diagnosis, doctors recommend patients with the following symptoms:
- Black chair;
- Blood in the chair;
- Iron deficiency anemia;
- Persistent diarrhea;
- Serious unexplained weight loss;
- Ulcerative colitis;
- Pathology, revealed during X-ray examination of the large intestine;
- Polyps of the large intestine;
- Chronic abdominal pain.
A colonoscopy is mandatory if the patient has a family history of colon cancer. In general, indications for colonoscopy of the intestine are suspicion of any of the possible diseases of the large intestine.
In some cases, for diagnostics, initially prescribed irrigoscopy - X-ray examination of the large intestine, however, when suspected of a tumor, most often recommend colonoscopy, since its resolution is much higher.
- Acute infectious diseases;
- Late stage of pulmonary or heart failure;
- Severe forms of ischemic and ulcerative colitis.
Preparation for colonoscopy
So that the results of the study were as accurate as possible, there should be no fluid and feces in the lumen of the colon. For this purpose, special training for colonoscopy is carried out.
In a few days (the exact number will be determined by the doctor) the patient switches to a diet that excludes from the diet slag products: legumes, fresh fruits and vegetables, cabbage, black bread, some cereals.
Also, an obligatory stage of preparation for a colonoscopy is the cleaning of the intestine, which is possible in two ways: medicinal or mechanical (that is, with the help of an enema). In the first case, the doctor, as a rule, prescribes a special drug Fortrans, to take starting one day before the study. In the second case, put 2-3 cleansing enemas in the evening on the day preceding the procedure, and 2-3 in the morning immediately before the diagnosis.
When choosing a specific method for preparing for a colonoscopy, be sure to consult a doctor.
Colonoscopy under anesthesia or without anesthesia?
Usually colonoscopy is performed without anesthesia, patients with severe pain in the area do local anesthesia (xylocaine gel, dicamine ointment).
Many patients, afraid to do this procedure, are interested in the possibility of colonoscopy under anesthesia. Doctors say that the overwhelming majority of this survey does not cause severe pain. Moreover, with a number of conditions for anesthesia during colonoscopy, it is simply not possible to do intestinal tract, including severe heart failure, severe stenosis of the aortic or mitral valve, with exacerbation of broncho-pulmonary diseases, with acute psychiatric and neurological diseases.
But there are situations where it is better to colonoscopy under anesthesia, and for this also has its own indications, for example, massive adhesion processes in the abdominal cavity, severe destructive processes in the small intestine, children under 10 years old. Therefore, a colonoscopy under local anesthesia is used extremely rarely, if there is a need for pain relief, then preference is given to sedation - a method of analgesia with special preparations, by which a person is immersed in the state of a superficial medication sleep.
Technique of the procedure
A colonoscopy conducted by an experienced physician takes about 30 minutes. Before starting the procedure, a relaxing drug is given to the patient. The patient falls on the couch on the left side, pulling his knees to the chest. A colonoscope is used - a long flexible tool, approximately 1 cm in diameter. This device is introduced through the back passage and, with moderate air flow, straining the gut, gradually advance forward. In order to facilitate the advancement of the patient's apparatus, they may be asked to change their position - turn over on their back.
At the moment of overcoming the bowel glands, a person may experience discomfort, light cramping and short-term pain relief. If during the colonoscopy the doctor notices any pathology, he makes a biopsy - extracts small samples of tissue for further analysis, which will help determine the nature of the formation. In this case, the study time is slightly increased.
Complications after colonoscopy
Complications after colonoscopy of the intestine are practically not observed. In rare cases, bleeding can occur after the removal of a polyp or biopsy, but usually it is minimal and very quickly stops; Side effect on sedative medication; The gap in the examined tissues happens extremely rarely, the quality of the examination depends on the professionalism of the medical professional.