Symptoms and treatment of salivary gland disease.
A stone of the salivary gland (a duct of the salivary gland, salivary graft or sialolith) is a sediment composed of calcium that can be formed in the salivary glands or its duct and block the flow of saliva into the oral cavity.
Often, stones affect the submandibular gland located at the bottom of the oral cavity. Less commonly - parotid glands and almost never - hypochondria. People with a similar inclination may have several stones. The size of a stone - from quicksand to chicken eggs.
Causes and symptoms
The stones of the salivary glands are formed from mineral substances in the composition of saliva. They mainly consist of calcium. The exact cause of their appearance is unclear.
Conditions that reduce the production of saliva and/or its thickening are risk factors for the formation of stones. These include dehydration, meals and certain medicines, such as antihistamines and psychotropic drugs, drugs for monitoring blood pressure and urination.
Damaging the salivary glands may also increase the risk of salivary stones.
Until the stones are formed, they do not cause any anxiety, but once they reach a size sufficient to block the duct, an outflow of saliva is disturbed, which leads to pain and swelling of the gland - initially only during meals. The pain may be lethargic and progressively deteriorate. Probably the addition of infection.
Diagnosis and treatment
The main method of diagnosis of salivary gland is radiography - in several projections, including intracranial images. Sometimes it is necessary to conduct sialography - X-ray examination with contrasting substance.
The treatment involves removing the stone. Small stones can come out for themselves, it is enough to stimulate salivation, sucking a lemon or sour candy.
Sometimes a dentist can manually push a stone out of the duct. In order to remove stones of a larger size, surgical intervention may be required.
Increasingly doctors use the new, less invasive method of removing the stones of the salivary gland - sialoscopy. The method is developed in Europe and has been successfully applied for 10 years.
Tiny sialoscopes are inserted into the hole in the gland, they visualize the system of salivary ducts and determine the location of the stone. After that, the surgeon can remove the stone with the help of special micro-tools. The procedure is most often undergoing local ambulatory anesthesia.
People with recurrent stones or irreversible lesions of the salivary gland need surgical removal of the entire gland.
When attaching an infection, the patient is prescribed antibiotics.