Chronic gastroduodenitis - one of the most common on the planet diseases. Knowledge of the causes of its occurrence and symptoms will help in due time to establish the correct diagnosis and appoint appropriate treatment.
Chronic gastroduodenitis is a compound concept that indicates that the stomach and duodenum are involved in the painful process.
The causes of this condition are extremely diverse. The disease may occur with elevated or decreased digestive enzymes.
Chronic gastroduodenitis: the forms and causes of occurrence
In some cases, gastroduodenitis may be secondary, that is, accompany other diseases (eg, severe renal failure, pancreatic diseases, etc.). In this treatment of the underlying disease is accompanied by a decrease in manifestations of gastroduodenitis.
But in many cases, gastroduodenitis can occur as a primary condition that, in the absence of adequate treatment, can progress rapidly, causing deterioration of the work of other organs and systems of the body.
It is now considered to be the primary chronic gastroduodenitis pre-ulcer state, that is, the initial stage in the occurrence of peptic ulcer disease.
The exact knowledge of the cause of the onset of gastroduodenitis affects not only the treatment tactics, but also its success and the outcome of the disease.
It was found that with adequate treatment of primary gastroduodenitis, only in 26-28% of cases it becomes a peptic ulcer. At atrophic gastroduodenitis, complete recovery is observed much less often, complications arise in the form of malignant tumors, diseases of the liver, gall bladder, pancreas and intestines.
Chronic gastroduodenitis: species
- Depending on the type of structural changes: superficial, atrophic, hyperplastic, erosive, reflux gastritis.
- Depending on the ability to produce digestive enzymes: with normal, elevated or reduced secretion, achillic.
- By type of disease: compensated and decompensated when the treatment is ineffective and the disease progressively progresses.
- In the presence of some features: hyperplastic, polypous, rigid - they are characterized by a certain predisposition to zzlokachestvlenie.
- Due to the involvement in the process of the entire organ or only its parts: diffuse, antral - they are characterized by a tendency to the formation of ulcers and cancer, especially with poor effectiveness of treatment.
- In the presence of changes in immunity in the patient: autoimmune type gastritis and gastritis type B, where the role of helicobacteriosis plays an important role. It has now been established that gastritis type A leads to the development of anemia and in some cases to stomach cancer, and gastritis type B to ulcers of the stomach.
At the heart of such a unit of chronic gastroduodenitis are the main types of disease and the prospects of treatment.
Features of the manifestation of chronic gastroduodenitis
Quite often gastroduodenitis proceeds asymptomatic or with mildly eroded manifestations of the form of a small, and from time to time arises heartburn, a feeling of discomfort in the epigastric region, severity and similar symptoms. They do not affect the ability to work and slowly pass without any treatment, and the patients themselves consider themselves completely healthy.
Only the widespread introduction of endoscopic stomach and duodenal studies with gastric assay, biopsy and PCR assays (polymerase chain reaction to determine the specific components of DNA fragments of microorganisms) made it possible to obtain genuine data on the prevalence of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, as well as peptic ulcer and other Pathological states of the stomach and duodenum.
In young patients, gastroduodenitis is usually accompanied by normal or elevated secretion. And symptoms such as blistering, heartburn, bitterness in the mouth, a sense of discomfort in the peritoneum, night and "hungry" pain usually occur either during the period of exacerbation of the disease, or after the use of alcohol (especially beer and wine) and spicy, spicy and coarse food, When overeating.
In the future, without treatment, in such patients there are diseases and other organs of the digestive system: cholecystitis with hypopoinitis or hypermotor dyskinesia, pancreatitis, enterocolitis, and later it is possible to weaken the immune system with all negative posledvyvayami.Sochetane defeat of the stomach and duodenum occurs in half of the cases.
Another, not less dangerous complication of chronic gastroduodenitis is the appearance of multiple erosions, and it has been found that a greater role in this is played by increasing the acidity of the gastric contents and increasing the permeability of small blood vessels in the stomach. And as with chronic inflammatory processes in the stomach and duodenum, there is a decrease in the ability of the mucus to heal, it is thinning, and on the background of erosion, small hemorrhages appear and even small bleeding. Thus, hemorrhagic gastritis develops, leading to anemia. Often this is provoked by drinking alcohol.
Chronic gastroduodenitis with reduced secretion is more common in the elderly. It is usually accompanied by symptoms of hypovitaminosis, dry skin, the appearance of angular stomatitis (Zade), weakening of immunity.
There is a destruction of teeth and there are periodontal disease, bad breath, increased fatigue, weakness develops, appetite decreases.
In the remission period, such patients love to use sour, spicy, spicy food. Often joints in the work of the intestine, liver and gall bladder, pancreas are joined.
This worsens the patient's condition, pain appears throughout the abdomen, indicating the development of concomitant enterocolitis. Often, flatulence occurs, and locks often change with diarrhea, dysbiosis develops.
Gastric bleeding is rare, but with long-term disease occurs iron deficiency anemia, frequent and allergic reactions (food, drug allergy). In some cases, with sufficiently developed compensatory mechanisms of the body, clinical manifestations are smoothed and the appearance of the patient for a long time remains without obvious changes.
Dependence between development of cancer, available gastroduodenitis and gastritis of the initial part of the stomach is revealed. In older patients, the probability of developing cancer reaches 15%, which makes it possible to assess chronic atrophic gastritis with localization of the process in the original stomach as a precancerous condition.
All of the above features of the manifestation of chronic gastroduodenitis require a more attentive attitude to their illness of patients and their relatives.
Therefore, all persons over 40 years of age, if there are even minimal complaints from the digestive system, should contact the therapist, as well as undergo an endoscopic examination (fibrogastroduodenoscopy) with a biopsy.