Cerebral palsy (child cerebral palsy) is a group of motor disorders that occurs when the motor systems of the brain are damaged. It manifests itself in the lack of control of the central nervous system in the functioning of the muscles, and in some cases, such control is absent at all.
Specificity of motor development of depression of cerebral palsy
In the formation of motor functions in normal development in children there is a stage and continuity.
In a healthy child, the sequence of maturation of the brain systems determines the development of the movements themselves, that is, the change of one elementary movements come new forms of movement, but more complex.
So, for example, in order to learn to sit, the child should first learn how to keep his head, then straighten his back, keep balance and only then hold his posture.
In a child with cerebral palsy, the sequence and maturation rate are affected. Specifics of motor development of a child with cerebral palsy is, above all, in the presence of primitive congenital reflex forms of motor activity, not characteristic of this child's age.
Under normative development these reflexes do not appear sharply. They can not be found until three months of life. Their gradual disappearance creates a favorable ground for the development of arbitrary movements.
For example, clinging or grasping reflex activated by the touch of a palm. Reflex repulsion is based on a touch of soles of the legs. The movements inherent in these reflexes continue to fade.
For example, a child begins to stretch his hand to an interesting subject, moving his hands and moving toward the object of the study. Such a movement begins to be formed not during the newborn, but much later, when the baby is interacting with an adult. Saving these same reflexes begins to slow down the formation of arbitrary motility.
The manifestation of these and similar reflexes in the second half of the first year of life of the child is a symptom of the risk of damage to the motor regions of the cerebral cortex.
In children suffering from cerebral palsy, the effect of unconditioned reflexes does not quench. The action of pathological reflexes in the first year of life increases, in subsequent years it becomes even more stable. This complicates the formation of arbitrary motor acts.
Children with cerebral palsy: norm and reality
For children with cerebral palsy is characterized by a very significant lag in the development of motor functions.
If a healthy baby starts to keep a head for up to 3 months, a child with cerebral palsy takes this function up to 3-5 years. Significant delay is observed in the formation of such motor acts, as turns from the back to the side, from the abdomen to the back, from the back to the stomach.
Outside the seat is normally formed up to 7-8 months, children with cerebrospinal fluid develop this only up to 2-3 years.
Creep, being a rather complicated motor act requiring the coordination of movements, is formed in children with cerebral palsy too late.
Straight in healthy children is formed up to 9-10 months, and children with cerebral palsy are trained to do this only after reaching preschool age. However, there are forms of cerebral palsy, in which this function is not formed at all or its formation is very difficult.
In normal walking, the child begins to form from one year, only a small number of children with cerebral palsy master this function after reaching 4 years. The rest of the children master her in subsequent years of life or do not master at all.
Even more delayed in time are complicated motor acts necessary for self-service in the home, training, gaming, etc.
It often seems that the condition of a child with cerebral palsy is aggravated with age. However, this is not the case, because in itself cerebrovascular disease is not a progressive disease. Such an impression is formed due to the fact that the number of children expected to increase with age, but differences in development do not allow him to do what adults are expected to do.
Causes of cerebral palsy during fetal development (prenatal period)
- Infectious diseases of the mother during pregnancy;
- Strokes, injuries, including mental injuries;
- Incompatibility of mother blood with Rh factor or blood group;
- Intrauterine hypoxia or fetal asphyxia, etc.
Causes of cerebral palsy during childbirth (intranal period)
- Birth trauma, including obstetrics;
- Brain hemorrhage;
- Asphyxiation of the newborn, etc.
Causes of cerebral palsy during the first year of life (early postnatal period)
- Injuries, etc.
The greatest importance is given to the emergence of cerebral palsy during the period of fetal development and childbirth. From every 100 cases, according to statistics, 30 arise in the period of prenatal development, 60 - during the period of birth and only 10 accounted for the first year of life of the child. In this case, the main causes of cerebral palsy are asphyxia of the newborn and birth trauma.
Factors are premature and overweight, as well as endocrine and cardiovascular diseases of the mother.
Cerebral palsy is not an hereditary illness, but many scholars say what causes it to be a factor. The incidence of cerebral palsy patients ranges from two to six cases per one thousand people.