The basis of the development of Burger's disease is the systemic lesion of the arterial and venous vessels of the extremities, the late diagnosis of which can lead to various destructive changes, up to necrosis of tissues or gangrene.
The illness of Burger, or thromboangiitis obliterans, affects mainly male smokers under the age of 45.
Burger's disease is caused by a segmental inflammatory process in the region of the vessels of the limbs with different stages of the disease.
The risk of complications in the later stages of the disease is reduced when smoking is denied, but more than a third of patients note the presence of necrotic changes in the tissues of the limbs, requiring high amputation.
Causes of the disease
Along with the main cause of Buerger's illness in the form of smoking-induced immunological reactions, the disease is often associated with:
- Various acute infections and intoxications of an organism (flu, sepsis);
- Neuroallergic reactions that contribute to increasing the sensitivity of the walls of the vessels to external stimuli;
- Prolonged cooling of the limbs (frostbite);
- Hereditary predisposition to violations of peripheral circulation and microcirculation.
Symptoms of the disease
Depending on the degree of defeat, Burger's disease manifests itself in the form of:
- Scratching, tingling or burning in the toes, feet, calico muscles, the occurrence of periodic pain when walking at the initial stage of the disease;
- Pronounced intermittent lameness, loss of skin elasticity in the affected area, atrophy of small foot muscles with progression of the disease;
- Ischemic edema of the extremities, persistent pain in walking or rest, changes in skin color, formation of ulcers with inflammatory infiltration, necrosis and gangrene in the later stages of the disease.
Diagnosis is based on complaints of patients and the exclusion of other diseases with a typical clinical picture. Burger's disease is diagnosed on the basis of differential research:
- Doppler, confirming a pronounced change in the microcirculation of small arteries of the extremities;
- Angiography, which determines multiple segmental arterial lesions;
- The exclusion of autoimmune diseases, sources of embolism or microemboliy;
- Various functional tests, indicating a lack of circulation of the limbs.
Burger's Disease: Treatment Methods
The disease, even in the early stages, requires immediate cessation of smoking and conservative treatment in order to eliminate vascular spasm and normalize the processes of blood coagulation.
In case of adverse prophylaxis, sympathectomy is prescribed to eliminate spasm of peripheral arteries.
In the event of necrosis or gangrene at the later stage of the disease, indications up to Amputation Affected area.