The prevalence of bronchial asthma, the main causes and mechanism of its development.
Bronchial asthma is a chronic respiratory disease manifested by periodic attacks of strangulation. This is due to the violation of patency of the bronchi due to their spasm, swelling of the mucous membrane and hypersecretion of the mucus.
Bronchial asthma can occur at any age, but is more common in children, women, as well as in industrial cities.
Causes of bronchial asthma
Bronchial asthma is an infectious and allergic disease, which usually occurs after an infectious respiratory disease (chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, pertussis, measles, etc.).
As a result of the transferred inflammatory process, the influence of bacterial, viral and other pathogenic factors in the patient's body accumulate products of tissue metabolism and destroyed bacterial cells (endo-allergens) that are formed in the body during its fight against infection. At the same time there is a restructuring of immune reactions with the formation of increased sensitivity to many other factors (sensitization).
The main types of exoallergens in bronchial asthma
Very often the change in the allergic background occurs under the influence of non-infectious environmental factors (exoallergens). They are conditionally separated into several groups.
- Domestic (household and book dust, building materials, life products of ticks living in upholstered furniture, feather pillows, carpets, spores of bacteria, yeasts, molds found in wet and poorly ventilated areas, air conditioner or ventilation hole);
- Epidermal (wool, magnifier, fluff of domestic animals, birds, food for aquarium fish);
- Pollen (pollen grains and flowering plants, shrubs and flowering trees).
- Protein products (milk, fish, eggs, chocolate);
- Vegetable allergens (strawberries, citrus, legumes, etc.);
- Nutritional supplements, dyes, preservatives.
- Antibiotics, sulfanilamides and other antibacterial drugs;
- Anti-depressants and diuretics;
- Antidepressants and antipsychotics, antihistamines and analgesics;
- Vaccines, serums, blood substitutes and others.
- Insect bites;
- Bites of reptiles and amphibians;
- Contact with animals living in water (jellyfish, fish, crustaceans).
Infectious and parasitic allergens:
- The simplest;
- Viruses, bacteria, mushrooms.
- Professional (especially products of oil refining, food and light industry, livestock, etc.);
- Intersextitis and other substances used in agriculture;
- Acids, alkalis, essential oils, organic solvents, volatile substances.