Brain cancer is a large group of malignant neoplasms that arise in various shells and structural formations of the brain. The incidence of this cancer is about one and a half percent of the total number of registered malignant tumors.
Depending on the location of the affected cells, the tumor is subdivided into the following types: glioma (the tumor grows in the brain) and neurinoma (broken cranial nerves).
Also distinguish primary (the process develops directly in the brain) and secondary (blood enters tumor cells in the brain from other organs affected by cancer) tumors.
Causes of brain cancer have not been studied, but some factors have been identified that can serve as a trigger for the development of this oncology:
In order to determine the histological type of brain cancer, a thin-needle or stereotactic biopsy is indicated.
Cure for brain cancer
Because of the complexity of treating the malignant neoplasms of the brain for each patient, they develop an individual plan of therapeutic measures. Based on the patient's condition, histological type, location and size of the tumor, surgical removal of the tumor is chosen as the main treatment method, either/and chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Symptomatic treatment is performed to improve the quality of life and reduce clinical manifestations.
Surgical methods for treating brain cancer
With minor tumor size it is shown that it is completely eliminated. When placement of tumors in vital parts, with a deep and significant spread in the brain tissue, surgical intervention is complicated. In the case of impossibility of complete removal of the tumor, if possible, it is reduced.
Methods of surgical intervention: ultrasonic aspiration, laser microsurgery, scalpel surgery.
Radiation therapy for brain cancer
This type of therapy is used in case of the impossibility of surgical intervention; In combination with chemotherapy for treating highly malignant tumors; As an additional treatment method after partial or complete surgical removal of the tumor.
The most frequently used remote gamma therapy, less often - stereotactic radiosurgery and brachytherapy.
Chemotherapy (drug therapy) for brain cancer
The optimal effect is achieved by combining chemotherapy with radiotherapy.
The main medicines are: Karmustin, Temodal, Natulal, Onokin, Lemumstin, Carboplatin, Cisplatin.
Methods of chemotherapy: arterial infusion (with a catheter, shock doses of drugs are injected into the vessels of the brain), convection method (within a few days the medicine is fed to the brain tumor itself), intratechial chemotherapy (drugs are introduced into the cerebrospinal fluid), intravenous chemotherapy (the capsule with the drug is placed Into the cavity formed after tumor removal).
In addition, there are standard methods that consist of intravenous or intramuscular injections and oral administration (tablets medications) of medicinal preparations.
Symptomatic treatment depends on manifestations and may consist of taking glucocorticosteroids, sedative and antiemetic drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ketones, ketonal) and narcotic analgesics (morphine, omponon).
If the treatment was initiated in the early stages of the disease, with the use of a three-stage scheme (surgical treatment + radiation therapy + chemotherapy), the prediction of a five-year survival rate is about 80%. In other cases, the forecast is not so favorable and is less than 25%.