Botulism is a dangerous disease that develops due to the bacterial toxins Clostridium botulinum in the human body. Botulism is characterized by severe defeats of the nervous system, can lead to paralysis and fatal outcome.
By themselves, the pathogens of botulism are not dangerous - the main harm to the body causes the toxin, which isolates the bacterium during intensive reproduction in a medium with a small amount of oxygen.
The bacterium comes from the soil, from the intestines of farm animals, as well as some freshwater fish to various foods - vegetables, fruits, grains, meat, etc. Particularly frequently, the bacterial reproduction is a canned food.
Poisoning occurs when eating foods that have accumulated toxins produced by bacteria. The risk of botulinum toxin is that it is not fraught with digestive enzymes and is quickly absorbed into the blood, affecting the nervous system.
At the same time there may be paralysis of the muscles of the pharynx and larynx, respiratory muscles, which lead to violations of swallowing and respiration, the development of pneumonia. When infected with botulism, sepsis may occur.
Symptoms of botulism
The incubation period in botulism proceeds in different ways - from several hours to 10 days. Usually the disease begins sharply, with severe nausea and vomiting, and often there are reumaid abdominal pains. On the second day, a feeling of abdominal distension, constipation, flatulence develops.
Defeat of the nervous system manifests itself by the end of the first day after poisoning. One of the earliest signs of botulism is vision impairment. Patients complain of fog in front of their eyes, fragmentation of objects. They become difficult to cheat.Porazhenie nervous system in botulism also accompanied by a general toxic syndrome, which is expressed in dizziness, headache, weakness, sleep disturbance. The temperature, as a rule, does not increase.
Violation of salivation is another sign of botulism. Patients note dryness in the throat, strong thirst, changes in voice voices. The patient feels a tangle in the throat, a severe pain in swallowing.
The main symptom of an unfavorable course of the disease is respiratory failure. The patient feels heaviness in the chest, lack of air, breathing becomes more superficial, pain in the chest appears. It is the respiratory failure that is the main cause of death in botulism.
First aid for botulism
Botulism is a disease that is dangerous to life, therefore, in the first manifestations of it, the patient is subject to urgent hospitalization. The main treatment event is the early introduction of protivotulinicheskoy serum.
Prevention of botulism depends largely on compliance with sanitary and hygiene rules in the processing, transportation, storage and preparation of food products, including strict compliance with the rules of home-preservation.