What are the main causes of hematuria (the appearance of blood in urine).
Blood in the urine may appear as a result of infections, inflammation or injuries of the urinary tract.
As a rule, microscopic hematuria indicates damage to the upper parts of the urinary system (kidneys), while macroscopic (apparent) hematuria indicates damage to the lower parts (ureter, bladder, or urethra), although this is not always the case.
The most common cause of hematuria in people younger than 40 years are stones in the kidneys or infectious diseases of the urinary tract. This can also be the cause of hematuria in the elderly, but the most common cause in this age group is renal, bladder, or prostate cancers.
Hematuria can cause several causes at the same time. Some causes of hematuria may be serious and some are not. Only the doctor can determine the true cause.
The most common causes of hematuria are as follows:
- Stones in the kidneys;
- Urinary tract infections or genitalia;
- Blockage of urinary tract, usually urethra: stone, tumor, narrowing of the urinary tract or compression by surrounding organs;
- Kidney, bladder, or prostate cancer;
- Kidney disease;
- Disruption of blood clotting;
- Injuries of the upper or lower parts of the urinary system, for example, occurred in an automobile accident or accidental fall (especially on the back);
- Medicines: antibiotics, analgesics, anticoagulants (drugs that dilute blood);
- Small (benign) enlargement of the prostate, known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (the disease is most common in the elderly);
- Chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, sickle cell anemia, and others;
- Viral infections;
- Inflammation of the kidneys of unclear origin;
- Physical exercises, especially running (as a result of constant mechanical impact on the bladder).
Urine can be colored in pink, red or brown for reasons not related to the appearance of blood in it.
- Certain foods: beets, berries and rhubarb in large quantities;
- Food dyes;
- Medicines (eg rifampicin);
- Admixture of menstrual blood in urine;
- Liver disease (can be quite serious causes of dying of urine).