Bladder cancer is a malignant tumor that occurs in the wall of the bladder that occurs, most often from the mucosa, rarely from other layers of the wall.
There are bladder cancer transient, cellular, squamous and adenocarcinoma. Growth of the tumor is possible in the lumen of the bubble (papillary form) or in the thickness of the germination wall in adjacent organs and tissues.
The causes of the degeneration of the body's own cells in the malignant tumor are unknown. A prerequisite for the disease may be prolonged contact with some types of chemical reagents. Such a pattern is found, for example, for amine dyes.
The clear dependence of cases of bladder cancer is seen in connection with chronic inflammatory processes in the body. That is why the largest number of tumors occurs in patients after 60 years of age with chronic prostatitis and cystitis. The incidence of bladder cancer is higher among smokers.
Bladder cancer: Symptoms
Depending on the location of the tumor in the bubble and the shape of its growth, the symptoms of the disease may change. One of the most common signs is the presence of blood in the urine. She, with significant bleeding, can collapse in the lumen of the bubble, clogging causing a violation of urine outflow.
Blood in the urine may also appear for other reasons (cystitis, prostatitis), so this symptom does not clearly indicate tumor. Growth of the tumor near the lower pole can lead to difficulty emptying the bladder, just as with prostate adenoma. And the occurrence of cancer near the urethra falls causes disruption of urine outflow of one of the kidneys, leading to unilateral pyelonephritis and even hydronephrosis.
The presence of a tumor process in the wall of the bladder is necessarily reflected in the process of urination. Urination can be accelerated, and urination is incomplete. The patient has a feeling of incomplete emptying, the bladder is gradually stretched through the residual urine. Illness when urinating appears as the malignant process develops.
Other common signs of bladder cancer (exhaustion, intoxication) appear already at the last stages of the disease, due to metastasis or defeat of neighboring organs. Germination of the posterior wall of the bubble threatens the rectal intake.
Typically, the bladder tumor is not externally affected. It can be detected by contrast excretory radiography, when against the background of contrast in the lumen of the bladder becomes visible shadow of the tumor.
A volumetric process in the bubble or in the wall of the bubble can be detected by ultrasound examination, although it is difficult due to the specifics of the location of the organ.
Spread of the tumor can be clearly seen in magnetic resonance imaging. But all these methods do not give an exhaustive answer about the cellular composition of the tumor. They will not replace cystoscopy with biopsy.
Only an overview of the bubble wall with tissue sample microscopy can give an exhaustive answer to all questions. Due to the rapid development of flexible optics in medicine, such a survey has become much easier and more informative, compared with the past decades.
Bladder cancer: treatment
Bladder cancer is subject to mandatory removal, so surgical treatment is inevitable. The volume of surgical intervention depends on the spread of the process, lesions of the lymph nodes and adjacent organs.
Further treatment, radiofrequency or chemotherapy, is determined by the presence of metastases and the type of cancerous tumor. The most gentle method of tumor removal is transurethral resection (TUR), which is also used to remove prostate adenoma. But this is possible for a small part of all cases.
To save an organ at radical treatment it is possible to manage infrequently, therefore, at removal of a whole bubble, simultaneously the question is solved either about prosthetics of the bladder, or on the output of ureter on the skin. The earlier the bladder cancer is detected, the less traumatic treatment.