Atheroma is a cyst that is located in the sebaceous duct, has a capsule and is filled with thick, salty skin of whitish or yellowish color, often with an unpleasant odor.
Types of atheros:
- Real cyst - it is an innate pathology that occurs in utero and is associated with a deep location of the sebaceous glands that do not have an outflow duct on the surface of the skin.
- False Atheroma - it is a cluster of sebum in the duct due to clogging its outlet.
- Atheromatosis - the presence of multiple atheros.
Manifestations of atheroma
The most common false cyst is. They can occur on almost any part of the body where the sebaceous glands are present, but more often on the face, the scalp (they are often numerous there), chest, back, genital organs.
Atheroma has the appearance of a soft-elastic consistency that extends over the surface of the skin of the tumor, from 5 to 50 mm in diameter, painless, shifted with the skin. It can gradually increase in size or not grow for several years. The skin above it is often unchanged, but with inflammation may be dark pink.
Differences in atheromas from lipomas
The atheroma is in the skin, and the lipoma (which is sometimes called fatty substance) - in the subcutaneous fat tissue. On the surface of the atheroma you can see the opening of the ventral ducts of the sebaceous glands, and above the lipomy there is no. The displacement of lipomas is limited, atheroma is the same as that of the skin.
Complications of atheroma
One of the complications of this disease is the suppuration with the presence in the adjacent sections of all signs of inflammation (pain, redness of the skin, fever above it). If manure breaks through the thinned skin, signs of inflammation may disappear, but sometimes small fistulas remain.
A more severe complication is the formation of an abscess, but with a breakthrough in the direction of subcutaneous fatty tissue.
Treatment of atheroma
In some cases, the unauthorized emptying of the atheroma may occur with subsequent accumulation of the content again. This is due to the presence of a fat-producing capsule, so the usual emptying of the atheroma does not result in its disappearance, and It must be surgically removed.
The treatment of the cyst is carried out operatively: at the same time, it is pre-emptyed through a cut of the skin above it, and then the capsule is removed. In some cases (with a well-expressed capsule), the atheroma is removed without pre-emptying.
A small stitch is applied to the skin. The operation is conducted under local anesthesia and lasts for several minutes. After a correctly performed operation, a recurrence of atheroma does not occur.