With rubella disease, joint damage occurs in half of all cases, both in adults and in children. This is due to the special selective effect of the rubella virus on the tissues of the joints.
According to many doctors, rubella virus plays a role in the development of diseases such as rheumatoid polyarthritis in adults and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis in children.
Features of development and manifestations of rubella arthritis
Most often, rubella arthritis develops in young women in the acute phase of rubella disease when the rash begins to disappear, or one month after vaccination. Extremely rarely arthritis develops until the appearance of rubella rash.
At the same time, the process is mainly localized in the symmetrical small joints of the brush and the wrists and accompanied by manifestations of the syndrome of the carpal canal in the form of a strong suddenly arises in the pain in the first to third fingers, and radicating to the elbow joint, reducing the sensitivity of the skin in this zone, the weakness of m Lice brushes This is due to the limitation of the mediastinal nerve due to edema and tenosinovitis phenomena in para-articular tissues of the radiopaque joint, and may be accompanied by lymphadenopathy (an increase and peripheral lymph node morbidity). In acute period, pain in the joints can be quite intense and do not correspond to external small manifestations of arthritis, but sometimes it is possible to appear in the cavity of the joints of the serous (non-gland) effusion.
Less commonly, the joints of the lower extremities (joints of the feet, ankle and knee) are drawn into the process, and in children it is more often observed the defeat of one or three large joints. On average, the process lasts no more than a month, ending with complete recovery, even without treatment and without residual effects. But sometimes a more protracted course of arthritis is possible; occasionally the process of transition to a chronic disease is possible.
When the primary infection with the rubella virus, as a rule, there is a fever, a general weakness, a headache and typical skin rashes. At a later appearance of arthritis, fever and manifestations of general intoxication may occur again, but without rash.
In cases where arthritis occurs after vaccination with the use of vaccines with a live attenuated rubella virus, it proceeds in a lighter form and more often with the localization of the process in the knee joint. More prone to such postvaccinal arthritis, which occurs a month after vaccination, a person who had previously suffered rubella infection.
Results of the disease
The disease usually takes place without a threat to the life of the patient. Its duration ranges from a few days to a month. Complications such as thrombocytopenic purpura in children and meningo- encephalitis in adults are extremely rare.
Diagnosis of arthritis with viral sagging
- In the general analysis of blood may be an increase in ESR and decrease in the number of leukocytes (leukopenia).
- When an immunological examination can sometimes be detected rheumatoid factor and an increase in immunoglobulin M, also determine the presence of specific antibodies in serum.
- In the study of synovial fluid from the patient's joint may be marked increase in its viscosity, an increase in the number of leukocytes and the presence of rubella virus.
- The rubella virus can also be detected in nasopharyngeal, blood, urine secretions.
- X-ray examination does not detect bone changes.
- With ultrasound of the affected joints, para-articular swelling of the tissues and a small increase in the volume of intra-articular fluid (effusion) may be detected.
Specific treatment is not developed, mostly symptomatic therapy is used, as the main prophylactic, vaccine prophylaxis is used by living, weakened viral vaccines.