Epidemic mumps ("mumps") - a sharp infectious disease caused by paramyxoviruses, is more common in childhood and affects the salivary glands, and rarer - other organs.
Features of development and manifestations of arthritis in epidemic mumps
Arthritis with mumps is found in 0.5% of all patients, 7 times more often in adult males, less often in boys.
Most often, symmetrical large joints are involved in the process, but sometimes there are lesions and small joints of the hands and feet.
Arthritis usually occurs in the first two weeks of the disease, but it is very rare and primary damage to the joints.
The duration of arthritis can range from two weeks to several months.
Very often, besides arthritis, the patient develops other complications of epidemic mumps (pancreatitis, orchids, and others).
If arthritis develops after inflammation of the salivary glands, its origin is often accompanied by repeated symptoms of intoxication: chills, general weakness, headache edema of one or two salivary glands. It is noted swelling of the joints, the accumulation in them of exertion from limiting the volume of movements and the appearance of pain. At the same time, the temperature of the skin above the joints is elevated, there is erythema (redness).
The course of arthritis in mumps has a certain variability and may resemble rheumatic arthritis: joints may be migratory, accompanied by stiffness, and sometimes patients develop pericarditis. But, as a rule, arthritis passes without a trace, unlike other complications, for example, after orchitis many infertility occurs, etc.
Diagnosis of arthritis during epidemic mumps
The most important role in the diagnosis is played by information on the contact of a patient with mumps and the presence of elevated (four or more times) titre of antiviral antibodies. Also, for intradermal administration, the antigen is used for diagnosis, followed by the control of the passage of the negative-positive test. The presence of a positive result in the first days of the disease is a sign of a previously transferred mumps.
To clarify the condition of the affected joints, the detection of intra-articular effusion in them is performed ultrasound examination of the joints, x-ray changes in the epidemic motility are usually absent.
Treatment of arthritis in epidemic mumps
As a rule, the treatment of both arthritis and the mumps itself is symptomatic, patients are hospitalized only in severe and complicated forms of the disease. But the observation of a doctor during this period of the disease, even in mild mumps, is necessary to prevent the development of complications.