Angina is a fairly common infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi, the hallmark of which is the affection of palatine tonsils.
Also, the inflammatory process can develop in the nasopharyngeal, laryngeal and lingual tonsils; Then angina, respectively, is nasopharyngeal, laryngeal or tongue.
Infection occurs both by own microbes, and external ones and occurs in two ways: food and air-drip. However, most often, internal infection occurs from the pharynx or oral cavity (carious teeth, chronic inflammation of the palatine tonsils, etc.).
In most cases, the syndrome is caused by streptococci, staphylococci or pneumococci, which are mostly found in the larynx from household items (dirty dishes, etc.), which were previously used by a sick person with angina.
Also, the occurrence of this disease can contribute to the various irritants that systematically fall into the larynx (dust, smoke, etc.) and the presence of diseases of the nasopharynx (adenoids, etc.), in which nasal breathing is disturbed.
Purulent inflammation that passes through the nasal cavity, its adrenal sinuses (sinusitis, etc.) and oral cavity (carious teeth) also often lead to angina.
The causes of angina are general or local overcooling, mental strain, fatigue, infectious diseases transmitted, sensitization of the organism, and vitamin deficiency.
Symptoms of angina
- Acute sore throat when eating and swallowing;
- Weakness and general malaise;
- Enlargement of the lymph nodes;
- Abdominal pain in the joints;
- Increase in body temperature to 38 * - 39 * C;
- Soft heavens, tonsils, tongue and palatine braces on the first days of the disease are painted in a bright red color;
- Directly on the tonsils may be abscesses or small areas of accumulation of manure.
The incubation period lasts from ten hours to three days. The disease always begins acutely: chills appear, the body temperature rises, there are characteristic pains when swallowing, become painful and regional lymph nodes increase.
The main symptoms of quinsy are quite similar to the symptoms of an ordinary cold, but with angina, sore throat is much sharper, longer it lasts and it gets worse much more difficult.
Types and types of sore throats
Angina can be primary, secondary and specific.
Primary. Acute inflammatory disease, which affects only the lymphadenoid ring of the pharynx.
Secondary. The tonsils are struck by acute infectious diseases (diphtheria mononucleosis, acute diphtheria, scarlet fever, etc.), as well as with diseases of the blood system (leukemia, alimentary-toxic alkyxia, agranulocytosis, etc.).
Specific. The provocative factor is a specific infection (fungal quinine or quinine Simanovsky-Plouta-Vensan).
Depending on the depth and nature of the lesions of the tonsils, angina is divided into: lacunar, follicular, catarrhal and necrotic.
Lacunar sore throat
The tonsils are struck in the field of lacunas with the subsequent spread of purulent plaque on the surface of palatine tonsils. When conducting pharyngoscopy, infiltration and edema of the tonsils, hyperemia and expansion of the gaps are observed. The fibrinous purulent yellowish-white content of lacunas on the surface of the tonsils forms a loose plaque in the form of a film or small foci, which is easily eliminated without leaving a bleeding defect.
Follicular sore throat
Mostly affected by the follicular apparatus of the tonsils. In this case, the tonsils are swollen and hypertrophied, through the epithelial cover follicles (pale yellow to five millimeters in diameter) are seen. The pholicles are revealed, thus forming purulent plaque that does not spread beyond the tonsils.
Catarrhal sore throat
Characterized by superficial defeat of the tonsils. Body temperature rises to 37 * - 38 * C, changes in blood are insignificant or completely absent. Lumbages increase as a result of infiltration and swelling. During pharyngoscopy, there is a bright, flaky hyperemia that captures the firm and soft heavens, as well as the back wall of the larynx. The disease ranges from one to two days, after which the inflammatory manifestations subsided or the quinine flows into another form (follicular or lacunar).
For this form, more pronounced local and general manifestations are characteristic than in other forms (persistent vivid fever, confusion of consciousness, repeated vomiting, etc.). In blood studies, there is a significant increase in ESR, neutrophilosis, leukocytosis. Affected tonsils cover the mucous membranes with a gray or greenish-yellow bloom with a dimly rugged surface. Due to the impregnation with fibrin, often the affected areas are thickened, and when they are removed, the surface is bleeding. Also, deep defects of the fabric (up to two centimeters in diameter) are formed deep enough, due to the rejection of necrotized areas.
Necrosis can spread beyond the tonsils: on the back wall, the larynx, tongue and braces.
Pharyngoscopy is a basic diagnostic technique for suspected angina. In addition, a general symptomatic pattern, patient complaints and anamnesis are taken into account.
There must be differentiated from angina diphtheria, measles, scarlet fever, acute catarrh of the upper respiratory tract and severe blood diseases. To do this in doubtful cases held additional diagnostic procedures: diagnostic puncture, bacteriological analysis of plaque on the tonsils, more blood and more.
Treatment for sore throats
In most cases, treatment of angina an outpatient, but if severe - held hospitalization in infectious disease clinic. A benign diet is enriched with vitamins B and C, necessarily abundant drinking.
The mainstay of treatment of angina is antibiotic therapy which includes the use of amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, cephalosporins (Zinat, cefaclor, etc.), macrolides (azithromycin, erythromycin) and sulfonamides (kotrimaksozol et al.). For topical treatment used bioparoks (fuzafunzhin) Faringosept, hramytsydyn C, rinse decoction of herbs (calendula, chamomile, etc.), Irrigation tonsils (Ingalipt, kameton, sebydyn and so on.), Rinsing antiseptic solution (furatsillina, nitrofural).