Aneurysm is a pathologically limited dilation of the blood vessel. This protrusion of the vascular wall occurs when the combination of high internal pressure, which is common in the arteries, and the weakness of the wall itself. Aortic aneurysms are very rare due to low pressure in them.
The weakness of the vascular wall may be on the background of the congenital defect of the vessel (coarctation of the artery of the aorta) or at the site of destruction of the arterial inner membrane. There are congenital aneurysms, but they are more likely to be acquired due to injuries to the blood vessels or infection (syphilis).
But the main reason, according to experts, is the affection of the vessels with plaques of atherosclerosis.
The swelling occurs in the arteries of a very different level and diameter. And the manifestations of aneurysm may vary greatly depending on the location in the human body.
For example, aneurysm of the arteries of the brain may be manifested initially only by headaches, due to the mechanical pressure of adjacent areas of the brain. Peripheral vascular aneurysms can remind of intense pains in the arm or leg. There is even aneurysm of the heart.
But the most dangerous are aortic aneurysms. Aorta is the largest artery in the human body, in which the blood is thrown directly from the heart under the highest pressure. Already from the aorta, the vessels that feed the kidneys, intestines, liver and heart itself are separated. The risk of aneurysms in this area of blood circulation is the rapid development of the disease, which very quickly begins to endanger the life of the patient.
In itself, aneurysm can first appear as a tumor, compressing adjacent organs (heart, intestine). Diagnosis of the disease is very difficult, because the disease is mistaken for other violations. Aneurysm is often detected by accident during an examination (ultrasound or tomography).
Aneurysm of the abdominal aorta can be taken as a tumor of the abdominal cavity, but a distinctive feature is pulsation. Increasing pulsation when pushed to the stomach should alert the patient.
The swelling of the vascular wall can be filled with blood clots, sometimes - of huge sizes. This thrombus can provoke complete blockage of the vessel and rupture of aneurysms with hemorrhage. So many strokes occur.
The place of the future aneurysm is usually determined by the weakness of the inner skin.
Causes of aneurysm
The artery's inner shell, in most cases, is destroyed by atherosclerotic plaques. The probability of occurrence of aneurysms can be estimated by the prevalence of atherosclerosis in modern society. Rarely, the inner shell of the artery is affected by infection, but this aneurysm develops similarly.
The most painful sign is considered to be the emergence of intense pain, sometimes accompanied by dizziness and loss of consciousness. This condition is called the aneurysm bundle. Due to the defect of the shell, blood under pressure penetrates into the space between layers.
High pulsating pressure in the artery promotes further stratification of the vessel wall. Against the background of rapidly destroying the vessels between the shells may also form thrombi, which bend. But the stratification of the aneurysm develops very quickly from several hours to several days, and timely diagnosis of the condition can save the person a life.
Treatment of aneurysms
Treatment of aneurysms was previously exclusively surgical: the pathological site was carved out with subsequent prosthetics or cross-linking of the vessel. Today, against the backdrop of the development of minimally invasive treatments, there was an opportunity to block the development of aneurysms from the inside of the vessel.
To do this, a long flexible probe is inserted into the arterial bed (through the femoral artery), which under the control of the x-ray can be carried out until the aneurysm itself and the endoprosthesis is established. The endoprosthesis simultaneously amplifies the inside of the vascular wall and turns off the aneurysm from the bleeding. Of course, such a method of treatment is possible only for limited indications.
Aneurysm is a very life-threatening illness. Therefore, a timely survey should be conducted at the slightest suspicion, as complications may not allow such an opportunity.