Anal fracture is a violation of the integrity of the mucous membrane of the anus, the cause of which may be both external mechanical damage and natural physiological processes.
Anal fracture is a defect of the mucous membrane of the anal canal. A fracture in the anal canal is one of the most common reasons for a visit to the proctologist. Cracks can have a different localization. Damage arises regardless of age and sexual attachment of a person. Although according to statistics, the greatest occurrence of cracks in the anal canal is women of the young age.
By the nature of the disease distinguish acute anal fissures and chronic fractures.
Acute anal fissure - a spontaneous violation of the integrity of the mucous membrane, as a rule, heals independently within 1 - 2 days without the use of medicines. Acute crack has smooth, smooth edges, slit-shaped, its bottom is the muscle tissue of the sphincter of the anus (the main muscle of the anal passage, keeps fecal masses). Its length rarely exceeds 2 cm. In case of violation of the course of healing of the crack, the defect passes into a severe form and develops a chronic anal fissure.
Chronic fractures are formed from uncovered sharp cracks, which, as a result of repetitive mechanical damage, increase in size and infect microbes from feces. The bottom and edges of the chronic fracture are covered with granules with fibrous bursts. With a prolonged flow along the edges of the crack, the connective tissue grows, the edges themselves are densified, subject to trophic changes.
In the area of chronic anal fissure, areas of excess tissue are formed, which in the future can develop into fibrous polyps.
Acute anal fissures undergo conservative treatment, while a chronic crack of the anus requires surgical correction.
Among the numerous causes of the appearance of anal fissures are:
- Damage of the mucous membrane of the anal passage by fecal masses;
- Injuries of tissues when injected into the anal canal of extraneous bodies (anal sex, enema);
- Violation of the blood supply to the rectal region;
- Rectal disease (hemorrhoids);
- Violation of innervations of the rectum;
- Sphincter sphincter;
- Changes in the chair (chronic diarrhea, constipation);
- Anatomical features of the structure of the anus.
The risk factors for developing anal fissures are: diseases (colitis, enterocolitis, hemorrhoids, stomach ulcers and duodenal ulcers, gastritis, cholecystitis); Malnutrition causing constipation and stomach upset; Non-compliance with personal hygiene; Sedentary lifestyle.
Symptoms of the anal canal defect
Anal fracture is characterized by the following symptoms:
- Spasm of the anus (spasm of the sphincter);
- Sharp pain during bowel movement;
- Sweating pain in rest;
- Admixture of blood in fecal masses;
- Insignificant spotting between acts of bowel movements;
- Complicated bowel movements;
- Purulent discharge from the anus with an unpleasant smell (with chronic anal fissures).
When anal fissure symptoms are often copied signs of hemorrhoids, cancer of the rectum. It is very important to find out one of the symptoms in a timely manner to the doctor to exclude serious diseases that threaten the health and life of a person.
Anal fracture most often may not have obvious symptoms. In the transition of an acute fracture into a chronic form, the patient may begin to disturb the pain with prolonged sitting, wearing a certain type of lingerie.
In chronic forms of anal fissures, the symptoms of which can be as specific signs (allocation of blood for defecation), as well as signs of general character (painful sensations, difficulty defecation), increases the risk of development of inflammatory processes with inadequate treatment.
Operation and conservative methods of treatment
Acute anal fissures are well exposed to conservative treatments, while a chronic anal fissure surgery is the only effective method of treatment. Before the treatment of the anus, it is necessary to properly diagnose and eliminate the cause of the damage, since the anal crack is only a consequence of the influence of the factors injuring the tissue of the anus.
Conservative methods of treating an anal fissure suggest normalization of the stool and acts of defecation. For this purpose, a special diet, softening of fecal matter with oil microclimate, light laxatives, which should be prescribed by the doctor, are recommended.
Thermal treatments have a good therapeutic effect: hotplates on the perineum, sit-up hot baths. Heat contributes to the relaxation of muscle tissue, which helps remove spastic spasms. It is also recommended to use candles, which help reduce the pain, rapid tissue healing.
In chronic anal fissure surgery is the fastest, most effective and painless method of eliminating the problem. In itself, a chronic fracture delivers significant physical and psychological discomfort. Conservative treatment can only aggravate the problem. If there is no improvement within 2 weeks, surgical excision of the crack is performed.
For prophylaxis, surgery also involves partial sphincterotomy (partial dissection of the anal sphincter).
The rehabilitation period after the operation lasts about a week, when patients are shown bed rest, a special diet and drug therapy.
If anal fissures recur in the patient, surgical intervention without sphincterotomy will only eliminate another fracture without solving the problem of new cracks in the future.
The prognosis after surgical excision of anal fissures is favorable. With proper timely treatment, anal cracks heal quickly.
Treatment of anal fissure by folk remedies
Among the main folk methods of treating rectal cracks are tampons, soaked with herbal infusions. Thus, the introduction of tampons impregnated with herbs of medicinal herbs (chamomile, calendula, oak bark) is one of the most effective methods of treating rectal fissure by folk methods.
Also, for impregnation of tampons used honey, castor oil, juice and pulp aloe. Of herbs for the treatment of anal fissure by means of folk remedies, St. John's Wort, celandine, wood, plantain, and grass dispute.
Treatment of rectal crack folk remedies should be combined with diet, procedures for softening feces (enemas, laxatives). Folk remedies are most effective in isolated cases of acute cracks, however, when cracking cracks in chronic forms, it is advisable to contact a doctor immediately.