Anaerobic infections are caused by non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria (microorganisms that require low oxygen uptake for growth).
To extinguish the vital functions of anaerobic bacteria, contact with oxygen, even short-term, is necessary. Therefore, anaerobic microorganisms tend to be located where for their development there are all the appropriate conditions: in the large intestine, genital organs (female), between the gums and the surface of the tooth, etc.
Anaerobes cause pneumonia, brain abscess, take an active part in the development of peritonitis, liver abscesses, they are detected in septic abortions.
Classify anaerobic microorganisms taken on the basis of the ability to color by gram. So, distinguish peptostreptokokki, pigmented bacteroids, pathogenic anaerobic bacteria, fusobacteria and many others.
For anaerobic infections characterized by a variety of infected flora. In separate cells fungal isolates up to twelve species of microorganisms. Anaerobes are found in the cavities of abscesses, necrotized tissues.
To develop anaerobic infections, it is necessary that anaerobes penetrate the tissues through the mucous membranes - precisely where the oxidation-reduction potential is extremely low.
Penetration of anaerobes is facilitated by conditions that are created in the body of the patient with ischemia of tissues, injuries (including surgical perforation of internal organs), shock, aspiration. If the tissue is adequately supplied with oxygen, the anaerobes die.
Anaerobic infections develop, as a rule, in the area of the gums and teeth, throats (necrotic infections of the pharynx), nasal area (mucous membranes), ears (otitis). If infections spread in the cranial direction, then the result may be osteomyelitis of the bones of the skull or mandible, the development of intracranial infection (brain abscess).
The aspiration of the oropharyngeal contents may lead to pleural and lung disease.
In the abdominal cavity infection can be caused by perforation of the wall of the large intestine (consequence - intraperitoneal abscess). Diagnosis is provided by Gram stain. Localization of abscesses can be clarified by ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity, computer tomography, scanning of internal organs.
In women, anaerobic infections can develop in pelvic organs - with septic abortions, tubal ovary abscesses, endometritis, and post-operative wound infections.
Infections of the pelvic organs may be complicated by purulent thrombophlebitis of the pelvic veins (the consequence is the recurrence of septic embolism in the lungs).
Since inflammatory focuses are not only anaerobic infections, but also other microorganisms, treatment does not always anticipate suppression of all.
However, it happens that infections with some types of anaerobic infections require a specific effect: antibiotics are suppressed by all representatives of the microflora.
The most effective treatment for anaerobic infections is possible by combining appropriate antibiotics, surgical resection and drainage.