Alzheimer's disease is also referred to as progressive dementia. It occurs due to the accumulation of some "glomeruli" in the brain tissue and plaques, which consist of a special gelatinous substance - amyloid.
As a result, once a normal person begins to forget the names of relatives, events that have taken place very recently, and then at all begins to "feel", as if falling into childhood - frustrate language, orientation and emotional sphere.
This condition is not adequately perceived by the patient, but his relatives and relatives are not very easy.
The basis of this pathology lies in the age-related degradation of the nervous system, especially the cerebral cortex. And there is Alzheimer's disease in the age after 45-60 years and more often in women.
To the physiological changes this disease does not apply, it is pure pathology. The real causes of Alzheimer's disease do not really know doctors. However, different theories of its origin are advanced.
Causes of Alzheimer's Disease: Theory
One of the factors in the development of Alzheimer's disease is heredity: there are whole families in which this pathology develops.
Of course, one hereditary predisposition is not enough, but in such families, in molecular genetic studies, there are genes encoding the formation of special proteins. These proteins can be a harmful factor that accumulates in the nerve cells and the striking nerve tissue. Such genes are found in the 1 st, 14 th, 22 th chromosomes.
Another theory of the effects of gene failure is the cause of Alzheimer's disease synthesis of a special protein. Under normal conditions, human blood contains special forms of apolipoprotein E protein, which is responsible for transporting fats to the nervous tissue. With Alzheimer's disease with a hereditary predisposition to blood, an altered form of this protein appears, which, according to researchers, can negatively affect nerve cells and be deposited in them. Then pathological plaques are formed.
However, not all people with problems in these genes and the presence of relatives with Alzheimer's disease manifests a similar disorder. Therefore, the gene theory and its relationship with the disease still require a dearth of study.
One group of researchers put forward the theory of the effects of zinc or aluminum particles that fall into food from dishes or the environment. Scientists believe and confirm this documented that in areas where widespread production of aluminum and zinc, where actively used aluminum utensils, the level of Alzheimer's disease is higher. It is believed that aluminum particles damage the nervous tissue, accumulate inside the cells.
There is also a theory of the toxic effects of free radicals on nerve cells. Free radicals are chemically active unstable molecules, the excessive formation of which leads to failures in any system of the organism, including the nervous one.
Antioxidants - substances designed to fight free radicals, simply unable to cope with their large numbers. Then radicals "take" protons into nerve cells, making their molecules unstable. At this moment, a chain reaction of cell destruction is launched.
There is also a number of proven data on the association of Alzheimer's disease with high blood pressure and elevated levels of cholesterol in the blood.
Certain researchers point out the role of trauma and infectious brain damage, and also consider Alzheimer's disease as a brain injury in severe intoxication, such as renal failure with uremia, hepatic encephalopathy.