Alzheimer's Disease - This is a disease that occurs in elderly people. It is characterized by weakening of the functions of the brain.
Because of this, a person can not take care of himself - she needs constant supervision, help from the side.
The huge disadvantage of such an illness is that it is not curable. All drugs used in treatment are aimed only at making the situation a little better, temporarily weakening some of the symptoms.
The order and causes of Alzheimer's disease
The disease occurs due to the death of the nerve cells, as well as the violation of the links between the rest of the cells in the brain. Even in patients there is a deposition in the brain tissues of amyloid protein - a special protein, the presence of which violates the correct transmission of nerve impulses.
For many years of research, it was not possible to find out the exact causes of the disease. Known are only general factors, the presence of which increases the risk of developing an illness.
- Age is over sixty years old. This disease is exclusively elderly. The older, the higher the risk of its development. It is not clear, but women suffer from an illness much more often than men;
- heredity. Alzheimer's Disease often occurs if the problem is with the nearest relatives;
- Much overweight People who are seriously more well-established norms, also risk to fill up the rows of patients in the future;
- hypertension. Increased pressure is also often observed in patients with a similar diagnosis.
Another reason that has a direct bearing on brain problems is a head injury that has been received in the past. It is known that such injuries almost always do not pass without a trace.
Symptoms of the disease
The onset of the disease is characterized by memory problems. Subsequently, the situation intensifies - symptoms grow like a snowball. The patient usually forgets not only the new information, but also the one that was relevant for many years. These can be the names of relatives, their own name, the address of the house - anything.
For patients, a recipe is characteristic: one question they can ask many times, not remembering neither what he was already asked nor the answer. Such people are confused in time and dates, do not recognize the places where they are located, nor can they understand how they got into one or another place. If they leave the house, they can easily get lost - go or leave in an unknown direction. At work of search teams these cases belong to a high-risk group.
Memory problems are also reflected in the performance of ordinary, commonplace cases. Man forgets to wash, to brush his teeth. She ceased to use home appliances, which she used before, because she completely lost the skills of such work. Patients do not recognize themselves in the mirror, taking their own reflection for another person.
A very typical way of talking is in patients. Many words are replaced by synonyms - not always clear and adequate. Often the patient repeats the sounded information. Having turned away, he can stop at the middle of the phrase, forgetting what was being discussed.
Almost always with the development of the disease there is a change in mood and character in general. A person may fall into depression, suffer apathy or excessive suspicion of others. There may be aggressiveness, excessive irritability - in this case, everything is very individual.
The danger of all these symptoms is that they do not immediately develop into a general picture. Everything happens gradually. In the first stages, the behavior of the patient simply resembles the behavior of the tired person. Temporal inattention is written off for fatigue or other reasons. But gradually the symptoms become brighter, supplemented by other signs, and the illness becomes obvious. The further - the more care the patient needs. People with such an illness can be left alone, because it is dangerous to their health, life, and sometimes others.
Stages of the disease
Alzheimer's disease has only seven stages of the disease. The very first Does not give any signs at all, it can not even be detected by a doctor at the time of inspection.
The second stage Characterized by forgetfulness, which is not even noticeable to others. Mostly the patient himself notices. However, the same symptoms are typical of normal aging, so they are also not anxiety.
The third stage Is already manifest more clearly: problems with memory are obvious to others. But they are not so serious so that you can diagnose.
And here Fourth degree Just leads to a diagnosis.
Starting with The sixth stage, The patient can no longer eat, go to the toilet and dress, perform any other functions.
On Sixth and seventh Stage it requires constant control from the side. After the final diagnosis, the patients live for about seven years. However, some patients (slightly less than three percent) can live longer than fourteen years. In general, such a disease with a common symptom may have a number of individual characteristics.
In order to accurately identify the disease, other ailments that may have signs similar to the initial stages - brain tumor, stroke, etc. - should be excluded. For these purposes, computer tomography and NMR are used. Also, several blood tests are performed.
Doctors have specially designed tests that allow you to check the level of knowledge, memory properties and some other moments. Also, in the course of the examination with the patient, a conversation is conducted in which a specialist asks questions that have been prepared.
And only after all other reasons are completely excluded, a diagnosis is made.
Treatment of an illness
Since the disease is incurable, all methods are aimed at mitigating it. To do this, use special medications. The first group refers to the means, has a good effect on memory and thinking, and the second - to the means that remove the anxiety and depression. As with care, taking medication should be monitored by people caring for the patient.
Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
Numerous studies in this area did not provide any specific data. All kinds of prevention that exist while they relate to assumptions, although they sometimes show their effectiveness.
So, experts recommend people to adhere to a high-quality diet, and often refer to such a Mediterranean. It is believed that increased intellectual activity helps to avoid the disease or delay its onset. Yes, knowledge of several languages, chess, music, puzzle solving, and much more is considered to be an excellent prevention of problems with memory or the brain as a whole.
Doctors recommend abandoning bad habits - even if there is no direct connection, these habits significantly increase the course of the disease, which can not be argued.
Alzheimer's disease research is ongoing. So far in this area it has not been possible to achieve much. People who are forced to take care of patients with such a diagnosis can only rely on modest achievements of medicine and hope for further development of this area.