Genetic testing will help identify people who may have aggressive prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in men. It is established that prostate cancer affects from 2 to 4% of the representatives of the strong sex, and in longevity older than 90 years, microscopic centers of cancer are detected in 100% of cases.
Typically, neoplasms are growing slowly, and causes other human causes of death. However, since precise methods for determining the aggressiveness of cancer do not exist, the tumor often requires such treatments as surgery and radiotherapy. Their use can lead to long-term side effects, such as impotence and urinary incontinence.
Researchers at the Fred Hutchinson Center for the Study of Malignant Tumors (USA) have found this issue. They were able to detect five genes that help predict the behavior of prostate cancer.
Geneticists have analyzed the features of the DNA structure in 1300 patients with prostate cancer. It turned out that the progression of cancer and the highest probability of death from the tumor associated with the peculiarities of the structure of the five genes.
- Leptin receptor gene (LEPR) is responsible for tissue growth, development of blood vessels, inflammation and bone mineral density. Perhaps it is his anomalies that can explain the fact that prostate cancer metastasizes primarily to the bone.
- The RNASEL gene encodes a ribonuclease-L enzyme that is involved in a programmed cell death cycle, responsible for inflammation and rapid cell proliferation.
- The ARVCF gene is responsible for intra-and intercellular communication. Previously, it has been shown that this gene is active in rapidly progressing forms of cancer.
- The gene of interleukin-4 is associated with the migration and spread of cancer cells, the growth of the tumor and the development of blood vessels in it.
- The gene of cytochrome-1 is involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms, which in turn affect the level of testosterone. It is known that the disturbance of the balance of this hormone is often combined with aggressive forms of prostate cancer.
Researchers have shown that in the presence of changes in four or in all five genes, the risk of death of the patient from prostate cancer is above all. It is these men who may need complicated or combined treatments.
Scientists hope that genetic testing will help in the future to identify patients with a high risk of developing the disease, which will reduce unreasonable therapeutic burden on other patients.
In addition, the discovery will have a significant impact on research in the field of target (targeted) therapy, which aims at specific genetic defects in malignant neoplasms.