Adenovirus infection is an acute viral infection, which mainly affects the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, eyes, intestines and lymph nodes.
Adenovirus infection refers to acute respiratory viral diseases and has its own peculiarities.
Features of adenovirus infection
- The pathogens are DNA-genomic viruses, among them there are more than 100 subspecies (called serovars), with 40 of them capable of striking people.
- Adenoviruses at room temperature can be stored for up to two weeks, but are killed by ultraviolet rays and chlorine-containing drugs. In frozen foods and water, they are stored for up to two years.
- The main source of infection is a patient or carrier, since adenoviruses persist in the respiratory tract for up to three weeks, and in faeces - up to six to seven weeks.
- Infection mainly occurs in air-drip and fecal-oral route, much less frequently - through water, for example, in swimming pools. The susceptibility of a person to this infection is very high, cross-immunity to other types of adenoviruses does not occur, therefore it is possible to infect another type (serovars) of the virus.
- Adenoviruses are common throughout the planet, accounting for 7-10% of all viral infections, and the peak of morbidity is noted in the cold season. Most often, the infection is registered in young children and servicemen, as well as in newly formed children's groups (kindergartens, schools, circles).
- The disease often occurs as an ARI accompanied by a conjunctivitis, but in newborns and young children it may be manifested as keratitis, as well as bronchitis and pneumonia.
Diagnosis of adenovirus infection
Of great importance is the knowledge of the epidemiological situation in the region, as well as the characteristic clinical manifestations and additional research.
- For early diagnosis, the most frequently used immunofluorescence method is to detect a specific viral antigen in the nasal cavity mucosal cells (smear).
- Informative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) that detects the DNA of the adenovirus in the ointment or in the bloodstream.
- When inflammation of the lungs (pneumonia), sputum research is performed to determine the pathogen.
- The general blood test for adenoviral infections is not informative, but with complications (bronchitis, sinusitis, pneumonia), it is possible to increase the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation (SLE) or leukocytosis.
- Using serological tests determine serum antibodies to adenovirus using methods RAC (complement fixation), HIT (hemagglutination inhibition reaction) for the entire period of illness twice during the acute and recovery period (accurate diagnosis with an increase in antibody titers to four Times or more).
- Also, X-ray examination of the chest organs (for the elimination of pneumonia) and paranasal sinuses (for the avoidance of sinusitis, frontitis, and emesis) are prescribed.