Acute coronary syndrome, in which first aid is very often crucial - is not nothing but a period of acute ischemic heart disease. Myocardial ischemia - insufficient blood supply to the tissues of the heart muscle - a potentially reversible process provided timely first aid.
Acute coronary syndrome may be uncomplicated and complicated. In ACS complicated developing acute heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, mechanical complications, pericarditis, prolonged or repeated pain attack, angina postynfarktnaya.
Clinical picture with acute coronary syndrome
Suspicion of myocardial ischemia or acute coronary syndrome first aid is to exclude other causes of pain that may indicate, for example, acute aortic dissection, esophageal rupture, acute myocarditis, bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract.
Typical complaints of heart attack
- Intense pain in the heart and chest compressing or constricting nature.
- The attack lasts from 30 minutes to several hours, sometimes more than 24 hours.
- The pain can be given under the left shoulder blade, in the hands, neck, lower jaw.
- Violations, anxieties, fear of death.
- Pale skin.
- Cold sweat, general weakness.
- Feeling short of air.
First aid for acute coronary syndrome
In case of suspected acute coronary syndrome, first aid and compulsory hospitalization are mandatory conditions for successful outcome and exclusion of further complications. Emergency care, as well as transportation of the patient with acute cardiac attack is carried out in a position lying with a slightly raised head. List the stages of first aid.
- Nitroglycerin under the tongue. This is the first aid for heart failure, as well as acute coronary syndrome, taking nitroglycerin can, if necessary, every 5-10 minutes.
- Acetylsalicylic acid (chew tablet 160-325 mg).
- Oxygen therapy. Inhalation with hydrated oxygen using a mask or nasal catheter (feed rate 4-6 l/min.).
- Anesthesia Nitroglycerin (under the control of arterial pressure) intramuscularly with dimedrol. Morphine is intramuscularly 1% (1:20 folic solution).
- Heparin (5 thousand units).
- Further tactics depend on the data of the electrocardiogram.
Ischemic heart disease significantly increases the likelihood of developing myocardial infarction, can lead to sudden death. It is expressed in the change in the nature of angina attacks.
The term "acute coronary syndrome" is introduced due to the impossibility of a rapid differentiation between non-standard angina and myocardial infarction, the necessity of obligatory passage of certain algorithms of treatment and provision of first aid with acute coronary syndrome until a definitive diagnosis is established.
Diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome and, depending on its results, first aid is based on diagnostics of myocardial infarction and unstable angina: clinical picture, changes of the electrocardiogram, and also laboratory diagnostics.