Acquired heart disease is a disease in which, due to defects in the heart valves, there is a violation of intracardiac hemodynamics.
Heart flaws are divided into two groups: insufficiency of the valve and its stenosis. When stenosis is narrowing the opening of the valve, most often it has scarlet nature. Inadequacy occurs when valve flaps are partially destroyed. There are also compensated defects (without blood circulation insufficiency) and decompensated (with insufficient blood circulation).
Causes of acquired heart defects
Approximately 50% of cases occur mitral valve damage, aortic - 20%. Often there are combined blemishes of several valves. The main cause of acquired heart defects is rheumatism, which develops as a complication of angina. In second place, according to prevalence, there is an atherosclerotic lesion. Much less common are other causes of valve destruction: syphilis, sepsis, trauma, systemic connective tissue diseases, and others.
Mitral valve defects
The mitral valve is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle. With its insufficiency, part of blood from the ventricle enters back into the atrium, causing its hypertrophy and enlargement. Pressure from it is transmitted to the pulmonary veins, causing stagnation in the lungs. Then develops compensatory hypertrophy and expansion of the left ventricle. Only at this moment the patient appears the first symptoms. Characteristic dyspnea, palpitations, cough with sputum, in which there are streaks of blood. Often disturbed by dull pain in the area of the heart, especially after exercise.
In the stenosis of the mitral valve, intracardiac impairment of hemodynamics begins only when its aperture becomes twice as normal. Blood enters the left ventricle with difficulty, so the left atrium has to make additional efforts to reduce. This leads to his hypertrophy. Increases pressure in pulmonary veins and arterioles. Because of this develops compensatory hypertrophy of the right ventricle. A disturbing wet cough with pink sputum, a feeling of interruptions in the work of the heart, shortness of breath, pain in the area of the heart. An unhealthy flush appears on the patient's face.
Aortic valve defects
The aortic valve is located between the left ventricle and the aorta. When aortic insufficiency of the valve's valves is destroyed, and part of the blood at the moment of relaxation of the ventricle enters back into its cavity.
This leads to stretching and hypertrophy of the ventricular walls. For a long time, the defect does not manifest itself. Then begin headaches, a feeling of ripple in the head and neck, fainting, pain in the heart. In the future, these symptoms are accompanied by shortness of breath and palpitations. The skin of patients has a characteristic pallor.
The aortic mouth stenosis occurs as a result of the conjugation of valve edges or cicatricial changes. This creates an obstacle to the blood when reducing the ventricle, causing its hypertrophy. The supply of the cardiac muscle is disturbed, which causes pressure on the sternum, which often spread to the left arm and neck. To the cerebrospinal fluid vessels also receive insufficient amount of blood, which leads to headache, dizziness, fainting.
Diagnosis and treatment of heart defects
The examination and treatment are carried out by a cardiologist and a cardiac surgeon. Each of the vices has its own sound pattern, which can be heard during auscultation. Palpation and percussion help determine the limits of the heart, lungs, and liver. To clarify the diagnosis, conduct echocardiography and daily ECG monitoring. X-ray of the heart is necessary, which shows changes in its size.
The main method of treating heart failure is surgical surgery for the destruction of damaged valves.