Timely detection and treatment of achalasia cardia helps to avoid life-threatening complications.
Achalasia cardia is a chronic disease, in which reflex relaxation of NSAs is disturbed, normally occurs when food enters the esophagus.
From the development of the disease no one is insured. It occurs both in infants and in elderly people. The average age of patients is 20-50 years. This disease is ranked third among the reasons for the violation of the passage of the esophagus.
What causes cardiac achalasia?
The main role in the development of the disease is the congenital or acquired violation of innervations of the esophagus. In the latter case, the role of the various infections of various infections.
These causes violate the disclosure of the lower esophageal (cardial) sphincter. It also affects the peristalsis of the esophagus, which causes food to accumulate in its lower divisions.
At some point, when the breast is already quite large, there is a mechanical opening of the cardia under its pressure.
How is the disease revealed?
The first symptom of achalasia cardia is dysphagia, i.e. Violation of swallowing. It appears suddenly (for example, after stress) or develops gradually.
Difficulty swallowing is not felt immediately, but after a few seconds from the beginning. A breast chest is felt by the patient in the chest area, which is rather unpleasant.
To get rid of this feeling, every patient finds his own receptions: he drank a glass of water, holds his breath and so on. Sometimes there is a paradoxical dysphagia, when the liquid food is easier to pass through the esophagus than the solid.
The second symptom is regurgitation. It occurs due to periodic wave-like contractions of the esophagus muscles, resulting in food returning to the oral cavity.
This can happen immediately after eating or after several hours. Regurgitation increases the body's tilt forward or back position, so it is often noted at night (the symptom of a wet pillow).
The third symptom is pain behind the sternum. At the beginning of the disease, it is due to a sharp reduction in the muscles of the esophagus. In later stages, pain is most often associated with inflammation of the esophagus (esophagitis) and its significant overcrowding of food.
The pain attack lasts from several minutes to an hour. Occurs usually on an empty stomach or after vomiting. The pain is quite strong, spreads to the interdigital space, the left arm, the neck, the lower jaw.
The fourth symptom is weight loss. Especially it is expressed in the later stages of the disease. Patients often limit themselves in the food, fearing the appearance of pain.
What a dangerous cardiac achalasia is
Despite the fact that the disease is not oncological, it carries a certain danger.
At later stages, complications such as a violation of the integrity of the wall of the esophagus (breakthrough) and bleeding are possible. General depletion of the body can also be the cause of death.
Methods of diagnosis and treatment
At cardiac achalasia consultation of a gastroenterologist and a surgeon is necessary. The symptoms of the disease are quite characteristic, but for an accurate diagnosis, an additional examination is required.
X-rays with a contrast agent (barium sulfate) help determine whether the esophagus is enlarged. To evaluate the condition of the esophagus mucosa, carry out esophagoscopy. The degree of spasm of the cardiopulmonary sphincter is determined by Ezofagotonokimografii.
Treatment of cardiac achalasia depends on the stage of the process. In the initial stages, prescribe nitroglycerine drugs, anesthetics and sedatives. In severe cases, cylindrical dilatation of the cardiopulmonary sphincter or surgical intervention is indicated.