Hernia is a protrusion of the part of the internal organ forward without disturbing the integrity of the skin.
The hole in the inner abdominal tissues, through which the part of the organ "slips out" (and sometimes the entire organ entirely!), Are called hernial gates.
Given the anatomy of the abdominal cavity of an ordinary person, one can identify some of the most "weak" places that can play the role of hernia gates: groin, belly button, white abdominal line. Also, a hernia of the abdominal wall may appear after surgery or mechanical abdominal trauma.
Postoperative (ventral) hernia
Postoperative hernia is called the output of the abdominal cavity (the intestine is thin or thick, an ointment) abroad of the abdominal wall in the place of postoperative scar. Usually in a lying position the size of a hernia significantly decreases, or disappears altogether.
Symptoms of ventral hernia include:
- Pain in the abdominal cavity, which increases with inclining;
- "Cone" in the area of the scar painful in palpation;
- Nausea attacks;
- Vomiting attacks;
- Long constipation (and inherent intoxication);
Postoperative hernia is dangerous for such complications: restriction of hernia, accompanied by constipation, hard feces with traces of blood, severe pain and requires prompt hospitalization; Stagnation of feces in the large intestine, the consequence of which may be intoxication of the body.
Umbilical hernia is called the output of the abdominal cavity through the umbilical ring. Hernia of this type also decreases when making a horizontal position. There are two types of such hernia: acquired and congenital.
Symptoms of umbilical hernia are:
- Pain in the navel region, which is exacerbated by intense physical effort, during laughter, coughing and sneezing;
- "Cones" near the navel, disappears while lying on the back;
- Umbilical hole is unusually extended;
- Nausea attacks;
Possible complications: coprosis (long constipation) with intoxication; Distress, accompanied by intense pain in the groin area; Inflammation of the hernia (inflammatory process of the organ located inside the empty body of the hernia).
Treatment of umbilical hernia in children is possible through massage and physical therapy.
Hernia of the white stomach line
Hernia of the white abdominal line is a pathological condition in which there are gaps between the peritoneal wall of the direct muscles, in which the fat deposits first appear, and afterwards, fragments of the internal organs are joined to them.
It is often distinguished from several hernias of the white abdominal line. In this case, the pain symptom is repeatedly intensified.
Differentiate premucorous lipomas in the following way:
- Premaxual lipoma (fat protrusion);
- Initial hernia (a hernial sac is formed);
- Formed hernia (there is protrusion of part of the body into a bag).
Symptoms of the disease are:
- Fairly painful vertical protrusions on the abdominal wall, more often in the upper department;
- Pain in the upper abdomen that becomes unbearable when physical strain
- Divergence of vertical abdominal muscles;
- Nausea attacks, periodic vomiting.
A possible complication is limitation of hernia, the consequences of which may be vomiting, intestinal bleeding.
The inguinal hernia is called a pathological condition, for which the output of some organs of the abdominal cavity is characteristic on the abdominal wall in the inguinal canal or through the internal inguinal rings.
Surgical symptoms of inguinal hernia include:
- Strong pain in the groin, which increases with physical strain, transverse and region of the sacrum;
- Feeling of heaviness in the abdominal cavity;
- In the groin is affected by medium or large size of the tumor, almost disappearing in the lying position;
- During walking, discomfort is felt, hernia can even rub;
A fairly frequent kind of inguinal hernia is a hernia of the bladder slider. It is easy to recognize on the basis of its characteristic features: difficulty in urinating, pain in the area of the bladder, frequent hiking in the toilet in small need.
Differentiate two major varieties of inguinal hernia:
Spit - the body of the hernia passes through the seed cord;
Straight - the body of the hernia enters the inguinal region, having safely passed the seed cord.
Complications: Affliction; Inflammation of the testicle (in men); Coprostasis; Inflammatory process in the body of the hernia.
Diagnosis of abdominal hernia
There are many methods for diagnosing various types of peritoneal hernias. What particular research will need to be done in this particular case - must be decided by the surgeon.
Methods of diagnosing:
- X-ray of the stomach;
- X-ray of the 12th-small intestine;
- Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity;
- CT of the abdominal cavity;
- Irioscopy (with inguinal urticaria);
- Ultrasonic scrotum (for inguinal hernias in men).
Treatment of abdominal hernias
Cure hernia on the abdominal wall is possible only by surgical operation (Removal of hernia or hernioplasty). Methods of surgical intervention are differentiated into:
Stretching operations transmitting stitching together the tissue of the abdominal wall, pulling them and blocking the "protrusion region." Sometimes artificially grown fabrics are used. This technique is currently rarely used because of the high likelihood of recurrence of hernia.
Tireless are to "strengthen" the tissues of the abdominal wall hernia located directly in front of a synthetic implant.
Pros: Low probability of relapse; The technique of operation is simplified; possible the operation by laparoscopy (all manipulations are carried out through three small openings in the abdominal wall); Pain in the postoperative period is significantly reduced; Quick recovery.