The World Tuberculosis Day is celebrated annually on March 24th. WHO warns that tuberculosis with multiple drug resistance is widespread in Ukraine, so the first place is precisely the prevention of tuberculosis.
5 ways to protect yourself from tuberculosis
- The use of milk from animals sick of tuberculosis can cause human tuberculosis, as well as meat infected with tuberculosis. Therefore, it is dangerous to buy meat and dairy products that are not sanitized by the sanitary inspection - in the markets and from the hands. Meat before use should be subjected to thorough heat treatment. In addition, you can not buy products packed in non-sterile utensils.
- Tuberculosis is transmitted not only by airborne drops, but also by household use - through household items, by contact method, since the Koch sticks are fairly stable in the external environment. Reduces the risk of tuberculosis infection following the rules of personal hygiene: hand washing after coming out of the street, using public transport, contact with money. During the day, the cashiers and other employees who have contact with money should wash their hands more often.
- The most at risk are people who contact the patient with an open form of tuberculosis - family members, doctors and nurses in a tuberculosis dispensary, as well as people forced to live together with patients in prisons, dormitories, joint chambers, etc. This is explained by the fact that there is a massive attack on the body of a healthy person Koch's wand with which he may simply not cope. Therefore, patients with an open form of tuberculosis should be isolated in medical institutions. If your relative is ill with TB in open form, you should gently persuade him to undergo treatment in a hospital.
- Unfortunately, there are no compulsory measures of a medical nature against tuberculosis in Ukraine, and unconscious patients simply escape from the hospital, putting at risk everyone around them, and first of all live with them in one apartment or in one entrance. If you know about such a dysfunctional neighbor's coughing, never sit with him in the elevator, avoid a close or prolonged contact, contact the police for his forced hospitalization.
- Unfavorable social and living conditions are a factor contributing to the development of tuberculosis. It is among people living in such conditions that tuberculosis is more common. Therefore contact with them can be dangerous for healthy people. These groups include homeless people, prisoners, alcoholics, drug addicts, etc.
Tuberculosis and immunity
It is believed that during a person's life many times meets the pathogens of tuberculosis, that is, he gets into the body, but the disease does not develop - the pathogen either is destroyed by the immune system, or is surrounded by a fibrous tissue, losing the ability to influence the body. Therefore, the strength of immunity plays a key role in the neutralization of tuberculosis infection.
Developing a disease can with a strong decrease in immunity, which happens, for example, in the case of HIV infection. According to the WHO, tuberculosis is one of the main causes of the death of HIV-infected people: 20% of them die from tuberculosis.
However, not only HIV causes a pronounced decline in immunity, but also:
- Nutritional deficiencies (with anorexia, rigid diets), general exhaustion, lack of vitamins, minerals and nutrients;
- Acute and chronic bacterial and viral infections, as well as parasitic infections (herpes, chronic viral hepatitis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, etc.);
- Strong blood loss, burns and kidney disease (combining these states significantly reduces the protective cells and proteins of the blood plasma, causing a deficiency of immunity);
- Diarrheal syndrome;
- Strong psychological stress;
- Severe injuries and surgery;
- Violation of the endocrine system, in particular diabetes mellitus, pathology of the thyroid gland;
- Acute and chronic poisoning with toxic substances and narcotic drugs;
- Long-term administration of some medications (cytostatics, glucocorticoid hormones, antibiotics);
- Malignant neoplasms;
- Autoimmune diseases;
- Radioactive irradiation;
- Smoking is a special risk factor for tuberculosis, as it greatly weakens the local immunity of the mucous membrane of the bronchi, and the respiratory system is most often the gateway to tuberculosis. According to WHO statistics, more than 20% of cases of tuberculosis in the world are related to smoking, therefore, the abandonment of tobacco reduces the risk of developing tuberculosis.
All of the above states cause a steady and strong decrease in immunity, which facilitates the influence of the pathogen of the tuberculosis on the body and the development of the disease.
In addition, due to physiological characteristics, immunity is reduced in children, the elderly, pregnant women - they are at greater risk when meeting with a tuberculosis sticks.
Thus, the prophylaxis of these conditions and the reduction of immunity in general will be considered as a prevention of tuberculosis, too. To strengthen immunity doctors advise to adhere to a proper nutrition, an orderly lifestyle and mode of the day, include in the diet more vegetables and fruits, dairy products; Engage in sports and hardening of the body; Avoid the effects of harmful factors on the body.
The main methods of tuberculosis prevention
In 1921 a vaccine against tuberculosis was developed. Vaccination is valid for all newborns aged 3-7 days in the absence of contraindications. The result of the vaccination is the preparedness of the immune system to meet the tuberculosis sticks and the ability to quickly neutralize it.
vaccination Is the main way of preventing tuberculosis, since meetings with tuberculosis can not be avoided throughout life.
And of course, as with any illness, than previously started treatment, the more favorable the forecast. Therefore, once every 1-2 years, adults are encouraged to undergo fluorography for early diagnosis of tuberculosis, and the Mantoux test is performed annually for children.
Even if you do not belong to socially unfavorable segments of society, one should not ignore symptoms such as persistent coughing, prolonged fever, night sweats. Everyone can suffer from tuberculosis, regardless of social status and bad habits.