It is known that early diagnosis of cancer is the path to successful treatment. Every year, almost half a million patients in Ukraine receive a diagnosis of cancer - a population of the whole city, such as Astrakhan or Penza. Nevertheless, knowledge of how the oncology diagnosis should be conducted is rather vague in most people, while their or their relatives have not been affected by the disease. This is a serious problem, because the time factor in the diagnosis of oncology is very important - the disease may have time to move to a more difficult stage.
For diagnostic tools, VitaPortal tells readers Alexey Remez, UNIM General Director of Oncology Disease Diagnostics.
The first rule of oncology diagnosis - It is necessary to undergo a screening, set up for your sex and adult, a bunch of individual needs. Screening is a set of diagnostic procedures designed to detect cancer (or an over-risk illness) at the NATO stage, when there are no symptoms yet.
What screening measures are now recognized as effective:
- Ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity and chest radiography in two projections. This research is recommended to be done to all groups of the population once a year;
- Periodic gastroscopy of the mucous membrane sobiopsia. This study allows you to detect oncological andredracular changes and to collect samples of naizuchenie-all the way of the gastroscope - from the esophagus, stomach, duodenum;
- Colonoscopy This measure is aimed at the detection of oncology and the trachea of the thick and straight intestine. Recommended for men and women once every five years, starting from the 40s;
- Liquid cytological smear from the uterus of the uterus by the Papanicola method and HDL-PCR testing by overcookocognitive types of this virus (possible smear is possible). This is a research for women, it should be performed once in 3rd year, starting with the debut. It is directed at the treatment of women in the development of cancer of the cervix, especially its severe forms;
- Mammography for women is submerged 40 years, from 20 to 40 years - an ultrasound examination of the mammary glands annually. These measures are aimed at Nara's detection of breast cancer;
- Blood test nasprostat-specific antigen (PSA). This analysis should be carried out annually by men over 40 years old. If signs of prostatitis appear, TRUZD is additionally performed.
These studies allow you to notice changes in the prostate to how they will cause her first inconvenience.
The second rule of oncology diagnosis - Based on the results of the screening, the diagnosis of "cancer" does not arise. Screening only allows to allocate among the population those who need to undergo additional, more detailed research.
At this stage, the doctor prescribes a variety of studies in accordance with the knowledge (origin) of the revealed tumor. It can be laboratory tests (blood, urine, feces, sputum etc.), Radiation diagnostics (X-ray, X-ray, MRI, CT, PETCT), endoscopy (gastroscopy, colonoscopy, and others). Based on the results of these analyzes, the doctor may suspect the presence of cancer pathology and patient's vonkologichesky dispensary.
Vonkologichesky dispensary the patient falls to the end of the con colologist, who, studying the results of previous studies, decides onneed to morphological research.
The third rule of oncology diagnosis - The diagnosis of "cancer" is based onresults of morphological studies.
Morphological studies of volcanoes are the study of tumor tissues oncellular or even molecular levels. Izopredeleniya turns out that for ihprovedenija need tissue tumor. It is received on the biopsy procedure for the lifespan of the tumor tissue (and also on the tumor and healthy tissues). It can be performed as an operation for the complete removal of the tumor, and can be carried out and ambulatory under local anesthesia. The obtained tumor samples are placed in a free solution of 10% formalin, to preserve all cellular structures in a non-existent form, and transports into the pathologic laboratory. There they carry out a series of operations on the material to fix and save it for an expedient term. Inresult of these operations is a histological paraffin block. Izetogo block then choose the most informative areas, cut the thin films onmicrotome, Azat paint with special dyes vimunogistostener. Dyes can be routine (hematoxylin, eosin), can be special antibodies that bind to certain portions of the tumor porpritsipu "antigen-antibody." In the first case, the study is called histological, autoimmuno-immunohistochemical. Painted slices, clad with glasses on both sides, are called histological glasses. It will be studied under the microscope of the pathomorphologist and diagnosed on the basis of the picture seen, own experience and qualification. Here lies the basis for the next rule of oncology.
The fourth rule of oncology diagnosis - When the oncological diagnosis is performed on the results of morphological studies, it is necessary to make a look at the histological glasses. This rule, unfortunately, comes out in the form of paid POMS procedures and opostavlyaetsya naukasovanie each patient andexperienced account. Revision of the histologic glasses in the laboratory of the expert level is the reason for the adjustment of the diagnosis in about 40% of cases. This is due, above all, to the lack of qualifications of medical personnel in the regions. Especially many complications sydagnostickoy occurs in patients podozreniemam nalimforopiliferative disease, tumors of the central nervous system, some tumors of soft tissues and tumors of the bones. This is a very important problem, since the result of morphological studies is the basis for choosing a treatment strategy for each particular patient - any errors and inaccuracies can be a cause of the threat of unnecessary therapy.
In addition, there are remote oncology diagnostic services that allow the patient to get a "second opinion" of the metropolitan pathomorphologist.
Remember: many types of cancer discovered by Nara stages and adequately diagnosed, successfully treated, you only need to timely and accurately diagnose.