What is ketoz

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Ketosis, or ketoacidosis, is a developing state due to the carbohydrate starvation of cells, when an organism begins to split fat with the formation of a large number of ketone bodies for energy production.

The appearance of ketosis as a result of evolution - one of the adaptive reactions to the lack of carbohydrates in food.

Glucose is normally the main source of energy, with its lack of alternative ways of supporting life.

In order to preserve the proteins, the body passes to fat metabolism. Fat splitting ends with the synthesis of ketone acids in the liver, which replace glucose as an energy substrate.

But with prolonged starvation or metabolic disorders, the concentration of ketone bodies in the blood increases sharply, causing poisoning of the body and a ketoacidoid coma, which can lead to fatal outcome.

The main symptoms begin with ketoacidosis:

  • nausea;
  • vomit;
  • Characteristic smell of acetone.

When ketosis develops

There are several main causes of ketosis, most often it appears in patients with diabetes mellitus.

Decompensation of diabetes mellitus

Ketosis in diabetes mellitus is associated with a lack of insulin - glucose in the blood while many (hyperglycemia), but it does not enter the cells.

In the body, in order to compensate for carbohydrate fasting, processes of gluconeogenesis - the synthesis of glucose in the liver from split amino acids and ketogenesis - start the fission of fat and the metabolism of free fatty acids in ketone bodies.

Due to disturbances of all kinds of exchange, the ketone bodies are slowed down, and the state of ketoacidosis arises, which, if not introduced insulin, passes into a ketoacidic coma and may end with the death of the patient.

The main causes of ketosis in diabetes are incorrect dosage of insulin, which does not correspond to the degree of illness, violation of the schedule of injections, the introduction of delayed dasg, increase the need for insulin in patients with somatic illness or pregnancy.

Children's acetoneemic syndrome

Ketoacidosis develops in children due to mistakes in nutrition - when excessive fats or prolonged periods of fasting, as well as with some diseases (somatic, infectious, endocrine) are used. It turns out to be attacks of cyclic vomiting that occurs at regular intervals.

Periods of vomiting alternate with periods of relative well-being, when the child is not worried. Suspect ketosis in a child can also be on the characteristic smell of acetone and reumaid pain in the abdomen.

Fasting and low-carbohydrate diets

The mechanism of development of ketosis in starvation is the splitting of fats with the release of fatty acids and subsequent synthesis of ketone bodies. Prolonged fasting can lead to the transition of ketosis to ketoacidosis and intoxication of the body.

The pity of a long rejection of food lies in the fact that the use of ketone bodies as energy still requires a small amount of glucose. Its body synthesizes in the liver from the amino acids formed as a result of the cleavage of the protein. Therefore, often people who are starving to lose weight, instead of fat lose muscle mass.

Low-carbohydrate diets are based on the following principle: the use of protein gives the substrate for the synthesis of glucose, which is used in the metabolism of ketone bodies, formed from digested fats.

The body loses fat without loss of muscle mass. But the rate of formation of glucose below the rate of formation of ketone bodies, therefore, they do not have time to digest and develop ketosis.

Especially Low-carbohydrate diets are dangerous for people with concealed metabolic disorders that are not detected in normal diet. They may develop metabolic acidosis in severe form.

Ketoacidosis when poisoned with alcohol

Ketosis occurs when the alcohol is stopped, it is manifested by vomiting and severe pain in the abdomen.

Causes of alcoholic ketoacidosis are several:

  • Education in the liver under the influence of alcohol substances promoting the synthesis of ketone bodies;
  • Full or partial hunger during the binge drinking;
  • Disturbance of excretion of ketone bodies by the kidneys as a result of dehydration.

Ketosis is a serious metabolic disorder, with the first signs of which you must contact a doctor.


What is ketoz

Category Of Medical Issues: Diseases