Radiation disease: degree and symptoms

What Are The Treatment Options For Radiation Sickness? (Health And Medical Video 2018).

For a common man, the term "radiation sickness" may seem far-fetched, either from a science fiction novel or an article about Hiroshima and Chernobyl. However, in reality, suffering from radiation sickness may be due to non-compliance with the safety of radiation-related industrial production, or even the careful handling of an X-ray machine.

Radiation disease occurs as a result of radiation exposure to a living organism. Its manifestations depend on the total dose of the received radioactive irradiation, measured in units of grays - Gg.

The received radiation doses up to 1 Gy refer to radiation injuries, more than 1 Gy to radiation sickness. Doses higher than 10 Gy are considered lethal.

High doses of ionizing radiation will damage the organs and tissues at the cellular level, violate the system of hematopoiesis, cause severe burns of the skin and mucous membranes, irradiation and disruption of the internal organs, mutation of cells and death of the victim. To get into the body radiation can be through the skin, as well as with food, water and air contaminated with active radioisotopes.

Radiation illness, depending on the intensity and duration of exposure, is divided into acute and chronic.

Acute Radiation Disease: Degree

Acute radiation sickness occurs when irradiated in a dose of more than 1 Gy for a short period of time. This is a relatively rare, but also the most dangerous form of radiation sickness. At irradiation with a dose of over 4.5 Gy mortality in humans reaches 50%.

Depending on the dose, acute radiation sickness is divided into several clinical forms:

  • Bone marrow (1-10 Gy);
  • Intestinal (10-20 Gy);
  • Toxemichenna (vascular) (20-80 Gy);
  • Cerebral (80-120 Gy);
  • Death under the beam (more than 120 Gy).

Symptoms and effects of acute radiation sickness

Lethal doses of radiation lead to a fatal outcome in the period from several hours to two weeks. The first symptoms are nausea and vomiting, drowsiness, weakness, apathy, seizures and trembling.

Subsequently, acute diseases of the gastrointestinal tract develop, leading to diarrhea and dehydration, a rapid drop in the mass of circulating blood, reduced venous and arterial pressure, suppressed vital functions and refuses the central nervous system.

The basic medical care in such cases is aimed at deactivation of the victim's clothes, removal of symptoms and relief of the suffering of the patient.


Chronic radiation sickness occurs as a result of exposure of the body to relatively small doses of radiation, which nevertheless exceed the dose rate of radiation. The disease affects various organs and systems of the body, characterized by the duration and wave-like flow. Chronic radiotherapy may combine critical organ damage and restorative body reactions.

The development of chronic radiation sickness includes three periods:

  • The period of formation of the pathological process;
  • Recovery period;
  • Period of consequences and results of radiation sickness.

The first period lasts from 1 to 3 years, during which time formed characteristic of the radiation illness of manifestation. They are divided into 4 degrees of severity - from the first light to the extremely severe fourth.

Diagnosis of Radiation Disease The first one, The easiest degree of severity may be complicated by the nature of the symptoms that are suitable for many diseases. Patients have an increased fatigue, memory impairment, and reduced ability to work.

A person who got under a dose of radiation in 0,5-1 Gy, feels that it gets warm.

Patients with the 1st degree of radiation sick suffer from headaches, insomnia, poor health in the morning, are irritable and change in appetite. Objective symptoms are increased sweating and disorders of the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx, as well as deterioration of the gastrointestinal tract, which is manifested in constipation.

A slight degree of radiation sickness rarely leads to an impairment of the functioning of the internal organs and does not affect the blood composition. When the radiation is stopped, recovery can occur within 1-2 months.

Radiation Disease The other one, Moderate severity Differs more pronounced character of symptoms. They are also accompanied by changes in the functions of the internal organs, bleeding, trophic ulcers and degradation of tissues, suppressed system of hematopoiesis.

The disease can occur for years, exacerbating infections and fatigue. Often, patients do not recover completely, even if they are provided with inpatient hospital conditions.

Third degree of radiation sickness Accompanied by a deterioration of the system of hematopoiesis, bleeding, organic damage to the central nervous system and internal organs. Numerous complications are associated with infectious diseases. Usually the disease progresses and ends with fatal outcome.

Fourth Grade Radiation Disease Almost never occurs and is considered to be terminal.

Modern diagnostics can detect and stop the disease to a certain extent, without letting it progress. The period of recovery comes in 1-3 years after the cessation of irradiation.

This term allows you to assess the degree of damage and recovery prospects. Chronic radiological disease can end as a complete recovery, and recovery with some defects. It is also possible and deterioration of the patient's condition.

Radiation disease: degree and symptoms

Category Of Medical Issues: Diseases