Glaucoma: from safety to blindness

From Glaucoma To Blindness - And Back (Health And Medical Video April 2018).

"Green cataract" - one of the most common diseases of the eyes, which often leads to complete loss of vision.

Glaucoma is a group of severe eye diseases caused by increased intraocular pressure. With glaucoma, the enlarged and stationary pupil acquires a characteristic bluish-greenish tinge. This fact gave the name of the disease: translated from the Greek "glaucoma" - bluish clouding of the lens of the eye. In German, for the same reason, glaucoma was called "green cataract." Today it is one of the most common eye diseases, which often leads to complete loss of vision.

Glaucoma is a group of severe eye diseases caused by increased intraocular pressure. With glaucoma, the enlarged and stationary pupil acquires a characteristic bluish-greenish tinge. This fact gave the name of the disease: translated from the Greek "glaucoma" - bluish clouding of the lens of the eye. In German, for the same reason, glaucoma was called "green cataract." Today it is one of the most common eye diseases, which often leads to complete loss of vision.

Common for all types of glaucoma is increased intraocular pressure (IOP). Normally, it is 18-27 mm Hg, and when glaucoma flies up to 80. The disease can affect both eyes. IOP increases due to circulation of intraocular fluid. Increased IOP leads to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) and ischemia (violation of blood supply) in the optic nerve. Depressed nerve fibers, lacking nutrition, atrophy and dying, leading to the destruction of the retina tissues and gradual loss of vision. If parts of the optic nerve managed to avoid death through the transition to a parabiosus state (decrease in activity, "sleep between life and death"), then recovery of vision is still possible.

Causes that trigger the processes of periodic or continuous increase in IOP can be many: heredity, individual features of anatomy of the eye, cardiovascular, endocrine or nervous system diseases, leading to a disruption of blood supply to the brain. As a rule, several factors must be triggered to eventually develop glaucoma.

By age, the patient distinguishes several major varieties of glaucoma.

  • Congenital glaucoma Occurs quite rarely, in one case, 10-20 thousand newborns. The disease can develop if in the I-II trimesters of pregnancy, the expectant mother becomes sick with rubella, pork, poliomyelitis, syphilis, and others. Vitamin A deficiency, thyrotoxicosis, excessive use of alcohol by the mother are also risk factors for developing glaucoma in the infant. 60% of children with glaucoma are diagnosed with a birth: in such children, the cornea or whole apple (hydrophthalm - watery eyes, or buffalo - a bullish eye) is considerably enlarged. In other cases, congenital glaucoma manifests itself up to 3 years.
  • Juvenile (juvenile glaucoma) - The diagnosis is from the age of 3 to 35 years. Sometimes isolated infantile glaucoma (from 3 to 10 years). This is a rare occurrence of the disease. Most often it is caused by genetic disorders.
  • Primary glaucoma of adults - The most common variant of the disease. Often, glaucoma develops imperceptibly to the patient. Main complaints: iridescent circles around light sources, periodic temporary impairment of vision, pain in the hyperbaric region. As the cells of the retina die, the area of ​​the blind spot grows in the person, the area of ​​the peripheral vision is narrowed. By the time when visual acuity is noticeably affected, the disease is already in a difficult stage, and the optic nerve is almost completely atrophied.
  • Secondary adult glaucoma Develops as a result of other eye diseases, which lead to a violation of intraocular fluid circulation and, as a consequence, an increase in IOP.

Separately it should be said about Acute glaucoma attack. This condition can develop with nervous tension, overwork, prolonged loads on vision or when working in a position with a tilting head. The attack begins with iridescent circles around light sources, headaches and pain in the eyes, blurred vision. IOP rapidly increases to 60-80 mmHg, the circulation of the intraocular fluid stops. The cornea is cloudy due to a strong flush, which distorts the optic nerves. Nausea may develop for vomiting, pain that is delivered to the area of ​​the heart. The front surface of the eye reds from the sprains of the vessels and acquires a bluish tint. Puppy does not react to light. When smearing the eyes it seems solid as a stone. Acute acute glaucoma requires emergency medical intervention, otherwise the patient is faced with irreversible loss of vision.

At diagnostics of glaucoma, first of all, measurements of intraocular pressure are made: single and daily oscillations of IOP (twice a day). In addition, indicators of outflow intracranial fluid and margin of vision (perimetry) are estimated. To find the causes of glaucoma and evaluate the possibility of conducting surgery is a method of gonioscopy. Finally, for ophthalmologic examination, an ophthalmoscopy is performed (an examination of the fundus). You may need to do some additional research with the help of special equipment.

Treatment for glaucoma has three main goals:

  • Normalization of intraocular pressure - a priority task;
  • Improvement of the blood supply of the optic nerve and the inner lining of the eye;
  • Normalization of metabolism intragranular fluid between the tissues of the eye.

Depending on the type of glaucoma and the causes of the disease, medical, surgical or laser therapy is possible.

In glaucoma, in no case can you prescribe medicines yourself. Drugs that reduce intraocular pressure are selected by an ophthalmologist individually with a mandatory diagnostic test. The reaction to the same drug may vary from person to person, so you must follow the doctor's recommendations exactly and regularly visit it for repeated reviews.



Glaucoma: from safety to blindness

Category Of Medical Issues: Diseases

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