Blood pressure measurement

How To: Measure Blood Pressure (Health And Medical Video 2018).

Blood pressure measurement is an important diagnostic test method. She is considered by doctors as the main prophylactic procedure, which, as necessary, is important to be able to work independently at home.

For these purposes, a special pressure measuring apparatus, so-called Tonometer. It consists of the following elements: sphygmomanometer; manometer.

The main parts of the sphygmomanometer are a rubber cuff for dragging the artery and a balloon (pump) to inflate the air.

Manometers are spring and mercury. Typically, tonometers using a stethophonendoscope (stethoscope, phonendoscope) are used to measure blood pressure. Measurement is performed on the Korotkov's hearing method.

Basic rules for measuring blood pressure

Blood pressure should be measured by following the following rules:

1. The room must be warm.

2. The patient should sit comfortably or lie on his back. Before measuring the pressure, the person should rest for 10 - 15 minutes. It should be noted that in the underlying position, the pressure, as a rule, is 5-10 mm lower than when measured in a seated position.

3. Immediately during measurement of blood pressure, the patient must keep calm: do not talk or look at the device for measuring pressure.

4. The patient's hand should be completely nude, the palm should look up and be conveniently placed at the heart level. The raised sleeve of clothes should not push the veins. Patient's muscles should be completely relaxed.

5. From the cuff of the apparatus for measuring pressure, thoroughly dispose of the air.

6. Tightly apply the cuff on the arm, while not pulling it strongly. The lower edge of the cuff should be located 2 - 3 cm above the bend in the elbow. Then the cuff is tightened or attached with Velcro.

7. To the inner dimple on the elbow is placed a stethoscope, tight, but without pressure. It is best if it comes with 2 ears and rubber (polychlorinated tubes) tubes.

8. In full silence, with the help of a cylinder of the apparatus for measuring pressure, gradually the air is sprayed into the cuff, with the pressure recorded in it by the pressure gauge.

9. Air is pumped up until the tones or noises in the elbow arteries stop, and then slightly raise the pressure in the cuff by about 30 mm.

10. Now the air is stopped. Slowly opens a small crane at the cylinder. The air begins to gradually go out.

11. The height of the mercury column (the value of the upper pressure) is fixed, during which the clear sound is heard for the first time. It is precisely at this moment that the air pressure in the apparatus for measuring pressure decreases in comparison with the level of pressure in the artery, therefore, the blood wave can penetrate into the vessel. Due to this, the tone is called (by sound it resembles a loud throbbing, a heartbeat). This value of the upper pressure, the first indicator, is an indicator of maximum (systolic) pressure.

12. As the air pressure in the cuff further decreases, unclear noise appears, and then the tones are again audible. These tones gradually increase, then become more clear and sonorous, but then suddenly weaken and completely stop. The disappearance of tones (the sounds of a heartbeat) indicates a measure of the minimum (diastolic) pressure.

13. An additional indicator, which is detected when using pressure measurement methods, is the magnitude of the pulse amplitude of the pressure or pulse pressure. This indicator is calculated by deducting from the maximum value (systolic pressure) of the minimum (diastolic pressure). Pulse pressure is an important criterion for assessing the state of the human cardiovascular system.

14. The measures obtained with the use of pressure measurement methods are recorded in the form of a fraction divided by a sloping feature. The upper figure indicates the magnitude of systolic pressure, the lower - diastolic.

Features of pressure measurement

When measuring blood pressure several times in a row, you need to pay attention to some of the body's features. Thus, the values ​​of the indicators in the subsequent measurement, as a rule, are slightly lower than at the first measurement.

Exceeding the indicators for the first measurement may be due to the following reasons:

  • Some psychic excitement;
  • Mechanical irritation of the blood vessels nervous system.

In this regard, it is recommended to repeat the measurement of blood pressure without removing the cuff from the arm after the first measurement. Thus, applying methods of measuring pressure several times, as a result, fix the average.

The pressure in the right and left hand often turns out to be different. Its value may vary by 10 - 20 mm. Therefore, physicians recommend using methods of measuring pressure on both hands, and fix the averaged values.

Blood pressure measurement is performed sequentially on the right and left hands, several times, and the resulting values ​​are then used to calculate the arithmetic mean. To do this, the values ​​of each indicator (separately for the upper pressure and individually lower) are divided and divided into the number of times the measurements were made.

If a person has unstable arterial pressure, the measurement should be done regularly. Thus, one can catch the connection of changes in its level due to the influence of various factors (sleep, overwork, food, work, rest). All this should be taken into account when applying pressure measurement methods.

Normal values, when using any method of measuring pressure, are pressure indicators at the level of 100/60 - 140/90 mm Hg. Art.

Possible errors

It should be kept in mind that sometimes the intensity of the tones may weaken between the upper and lower pressure, sometimes much. And then this moment can be mistaken for too high pressure. If, however, continuing to release air from the apparatus for measuring pressure, the volume of tones increases, and they stop at the level of the true lower (diastolic) pressure.

If the pressure in the cuff is not raised enough, you can easily be mistaken in the meaning of systolic pressure. So, in order to avoid mistakes, it is necessary to use the methods of measuring pressure correctly: the pressure level in the cuff is raised high enough to "press", but when releasing air, it is necessary to continue to listen to the tones until the full drop in pressure to zero.

Another error is possible. If you strongly press the phonendoscope on the brachial artery, in some people, the tones are heeded to zero. Therefore, one should not squeeze the head of the phonendoscope directly into the artery, but the value of the lower, diastolic pressure, should be fixed at a sharp decrease in the intensity of the tones.

Blood pressure measurement

Category Of Medical Issues: Diagnostics