Aplastic anemia

Johns Hopkins Medicine | Aplastic Anemia (Health And Medical Video April 2018).

Aplastic anemia occurs due to damage to stem cells in the blood, resulting in a profound inhibition of hemopoiesis - the process of education and development of leukocytes, platelets and red blood cells.

Aplastic anemia is one of the most severe haemopoiesis disorders, which in 80% of cases leads to fatal outcome.

Very long aplastic anemia was considered as a syndrome, which combines the pathological states of the bone marrow, which occur with severe hypoplasia of hematopoiesis. Now aplastic anemia is considered an independent disease and is clearly separated from the syndrome of hypoplasia.

Aplastic anemia occurs more often in young people than in elderly people, in the same ratio in men and women.

Causes

This disease can develop for many reasons. However, in nearly half of the patients, the cause of aplastic anemia remains unknown.

One of the factors of the disease is increased sensitivity to the drug. Reactions of this type are unpredictable and do not have a relationship between the duration of administration and the dose of the drug.

In most cases, aplastic anemia is caused by levomitsetin, sulfanilamides, tetracycline, streptomycin, butadiene, gold compounds, barbiturates, buccal, decaryses, antithyroid and antihistamines.

Receiving levomitsitin causes the most severe form of aplastic anemia. Frequency of disease from receiving levomitsetina - 1: 30000.

Among the physical factors should be the effect of ionizing radiation. The risk group includes radiologists and radiologists, as well as patients who have received radiotherapy.

In some cases, the development of aplastic anemia was associated with infectious diseases: viral hepatitis, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes virus, paravirus, human immunodeficiency virus and cytomegalovirus.

Another reason is an inherited genetic defect.

Manifestations of the disease

In the first place, the patient complains of increased fatigue, frequent dizziness, weakness, poor tolerability of stuffy rooms and constant noise in the ears.

All these signs are associated with the development of anemia. Frequent bruising without cause, various bleeding (uterus, nasal, gastrointestinal) make the patient watch over and come to the doctor.

During the examination, the patient is observed to have pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, swelling on the lower limbs and enlarged liver due to insufficient circulatory circulation in a large circle. Characteristic and various inflammatory diseases (angina, pneumonia, infection of the urinary tract, sepsis).

Treatment of aplastic anemia

The main and presently the only pathogenetic method of aplastic anemia is bone marrow transplantation.

In the event that it is impossible to select a compatible donor, conduct palliative therapy. The scheme of this therapy is as follows: as the main drug, immunosuppressive agents Cyclosporin A.

If aplastic anemia is in a mild stage, the use of this drug can be quite successful. The effect of such therapy in patients with severe aplastic anemia is questionable.

All patients suffering from aplastic anemia require replacement thrombocytic or erythrocytic mass transfusion therapy.

The volume of transfusion therapy is due to clinical manifestations of aplastic anemia and indicators perifericheskoy blood. For the prevention and treatment of infectious complications, conduct microstatic and antibacterial therapy.



Aplastic anemia

Category Of Medical Issues: Diseases

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